Tourism in India is instrumental for employment and economic growth. It
is the largest service sector industry. Growth in economy has increased the disposable
income, which as created better opportunities for travel. India offers numerous
travel opportunities consisting of forests, hills, rivers and mountains. According
to Maurice Jane (2002) India is a perfect blend of historical, traditional and
cultural significance. It comprises of coastal areas as well as hill top scenic
locations. Thus has a vast potential for tourism growth and is successful in
catering to the needs of tourists with diversified interests. The country is
able to attract foreign tourist and also a high amount of Foreign Direct
Investment (FDI). India is rich in diversity and believes in “Atithi
The tourism ministry as undertook a series of promotional
activities in tourist generating markets. The five-year plans with the main
focus laid on developing Indian Tourism. The roles of the government central, state and
local bodies are essential in planning, promoting and encouraging sustainable
tourism schemes. The reason behind tremendous growth is due to the high
spending foreign tourists, the middle class population and the government
campaign of Incredible India. The drivers of tourism in India are domestic and
international growth drivers. The
domestic drivers are the lifestyles of middle class, leading to purchasing
power and better connectivity while the international drivers are value for
money at the. The Incredible India is s lucrative brand for government
initiatives and policies that help increase inbound tourism.
major part of the country’s population falls under a young age group of 18-55
and are more open to new destinations. Diverse product offerings of
tourism industry are driving different
sections of the society into the industry. The availability of credits and
easy financing has enhanced the growth. (Ajay & Reena , 2007;
Malya & Anindya, 2013).
The recovery from various global financial crises
has led to the formation of new markets; this has led to diversification of
tourism markets. According to UNWTO in 2012 tourism hit the highest record of
all time. According to Karin and Weber (2001) travelling for adventure has
increased drastically to the region of America and Europe, also arrival of
adventure tourists to India from these countries has also increased. The
highest increase in spending was from South American adventure travelers which
85% for hard adventure and 25% for soft adventure travel per year. Many
tourists are no longer satisfied by sightseeing or visiting places or shopping.
They are in search for activities that create unique experiences.
According to Andrea Moretti (2016) Adventure Tourism means travelling
for an exciting or an unusual experience that usually involves a degree of danger
and risk. While performing adventure activities the adventurists faces high or
low challenges. The wilderness, exotic and unusual environment are the main factors
of this segment. The inner motivation of adventurist determines in choosing the
suitable activity. In this form of tourism the tourists accept the limited
infrastructure and the underdevelopment of the area as the main focus is laid
on indulging in the activity. In spite of the presence of various threats that
are associated the tourists willingly experience adventurous activities. (Buckley R. , 2010)
The adventure tourism or activities could be divided into two parts:
Hard Adventure and Soft Adventure. The hard adventure involves activities with
physical risks, high risk activities and requires sufficient training and
expertise. While the latter includes
activities that are safer and do not require any training or guidance from
experts (Paul and Williams, 2007; Koder, 2005). The type of activity chosen
depends on the motivation and interests of the adventurist. These include
camping, nature walks, wildlife visit horseback riding or volunteer
opportunities. Travelling for adventure activities comprises for more than one
fifth of tourism revenue
In adventure tourism small businesses have become dominant and mostly such
businesses are unprofessional since bigger businesses are less in this field.
There is lack of a proper professional management system that ensures the
safety and caters to the increasing demand of adventurists (Cluotier, 2003).
In this kind of tourism the locals can take advantage and create benefits.
At the international level leading countries have developed infrastructure and
regulations for performing activities. India has various growth opportunities
in this sector due to the presence of several touristic resources like vast
coastlines, unique land formations, landscapes, wildlife, mountains etc. The Indian government is providing assistance
to various states like Goa, Kashmir, Karnataka, Auli, Manali, and Kerala for
the development of adventure activities.
According to Cecil
and Krohn (2014) in order to exploit
the resources, research has been conducted to understand the quality of tourism
products and its marketing followed. Since the risk associated with tourism is intangible
in nature, it is necessary to evaluate the destination in order to attract
tourists. But this scenario works completely different in the sub sector of
tourism known as adventure tourism. The risk perceived acts as an attraction to
tourists and severs as a means for operators to formulate better packages. It
clearly plays a role in decision-making.
The adventure tourism is presently at the stage of
development in Karnataka and is one of the fastest growing segments in tourism
industry. Development of activities could increase the arrivals and expand the
business opportunities. The present study examines the potentials of adventure
tourism and focuses on the problems that arise in the development of this
tourism. Additionally the study extends to give suggestions and recommendations
in order to develop adventure tourism and fully utilize the resources that are
present in the state of Karnataka.
The state of Karnataka offers activities
that are diversified and matches to its landscape that’s on land, the sky
above, on top of the hills or even the life below like underwater. Adventurists
can cater to their hunger for adventure by indulging in skydiving there is
opportunities for soft adventure like cycling from the Nilgiri mountains and it
ranges to spotting animals in the national parks of the state. The vast
coastline supports water sports activities as well. Thus there are no limited
options available in the state Karnataka.
Karnataka caters to all kinds of tourists, ranging from nature lovers
to those fond of outdoor activities. It provides trekking routes in the Ghat sections
and is home to various wildlife sanctuaries. Rock climbing in Yana and Ramnagar
are very popular. Activities like
trekking, parasailing and hand gliding is provided in Nandi Hills. The wildlife
sanctuaries offer jeep safaris and the cruise down a river helps in observing
rich diversity of the animals and bird life.
There are popular soft adventure
activities in the Bhadra and Kabini region. Water sport activities like rafting
are available in the regions of Coorg and Dandeli. So the adventure
recreationists have wide range of choices. The resorts located in pristine
regions of Karnataka provide nature walks or trails to the nearby areas, where
the naturist takes tourists for a walk of plantations or even jungles. Coracle
rides are popular in Nagarhole and Dandeli. These resorts are often named as
adventure lodges or resorts.
segment of adventure tourism the main challenge is to understand the concept of
perceived risk and the behavioral intentions.
Adventure activities are often associated with uncertainty and risks. By
understanding the tourists behavior it becomes easier to understand their
purpose or need for travel. By knowing the reason behind choosing Karnataka as
a potential destination it becomes easier for the operators, government and the
host community to cater to the tourists in a better way at the destination.
The research on
adventure tourism helps to exploit the money making potential that is available
in tourism industry. Data gathered on behavioral intentions includes the likes
and dislikes helps to create more appealing venues for activities and
encourages tourists to participate. The
study would help in investigating the problems and situations that may arise in future. It will suggest ideas
and generate scope for further research. The research on adventure tourism
sector is conducted to focus on problems that are closely related to this
specific sector and find out appropriate solutions through the study.
adventure tourism not everything is positive.
The study will help in identifying the impacts that are taking place due
to the presence of adventure activities in Karnataka. Since the activities are
usually conducted in natural environments there are greater chances for
affecting the surroundings and life of the local or host community. This study
will act as a guide for the ecological problems. Understanding the negative
aspects will help in producing knowledge about the changes that has to be
ensured. The study of both soft and hard adventure will act as a guide for
understanding the activities that are provided in Karnataka and the level of
services that is offered. Thus in today’s scenario
every destination is trying to establish there tourism image to generate more
opportunities; when compared to other states Karnataka is slow in reaching its
of the Problem
Satisfaction with trends: Current issues in Adventure Tourism in Karnataka
To discover the various trends in
activities and behavior of adventure tourists who are visiting Karnataka. To
understand the driving trends and the latest developments in the adventure tourism
sector of the state. Trends will help to understand the reason behind undertaking
an activity or choosing a particular destination. This might be due to the
environmental appeal of the destination or the risk factors associated with the
activity. Behavioral intentions can be
understood by analyzing the psychographics, socio demographics of adventure
travelers. It is necessary to get insight about the motivations of the
adventure traveller since he is an asset to the tourism industry. The study is
essential to understand the trip behaviors of adventurists and their
implications on the travel market.
The perception on adventure
tourism or activities in Karnataka varies from each tourist. For a few it may
be viewed as one of the most unique destination while on the other hand
tourists may perceive this region as less appealing. This study will help in
understanding the current scenario and issues that are prevailing in this
segment of tourism. Satisfaction is one
of the important variables of tourism industry. Satisfaction levels of tourists
determine the success of a particular destination. Word of mouth spreads faster
than any promotional activity. To understand the issues prevalent in adventure
tourism it is necessary to get information about the participants. Analyzing the current scenarios will help
in suggesting measures that will prevent and improve the quality of both the
adventure destination and tourist experience. Therefore there is a need for the above-mentioned study.
of the Study
analyze satisfaction, behavioral intentions in the context of adventure tourism
in Karnataka. ?
identify current issues and impacts of adventure destinations and also to
suggest measures to overcome challenges. ?
success of any new trends in adventure tourism can be measured through the
satisfaction of adventure travellers. Development of a tourist destination is
dependent on tourist satisfaction and they are inseparable. The customer satisfaction helps in extending customer
stay and spending. Satisfaction is essential to develop a strong relationship
between tourists and service providers.
aim of the study is to understand the attitude and behavior of adventure
recreationalists. It is essential to understand the behavior patterns; this
will help in understanding their actions. This includes the methods adopted by
the tourist for choosing a destination, activity, perceptions of safety and
risk, motivational factors and interests. Adventure tourism involves risk and
uncertainties but this will help in determining psychological and behavioral
patterns (Tseng, 2007).
issues relate to those prevailing with the tourists and at the destination.
This objective will further help in understanding the limitations of this study
and the scope for further research in this area. This
research will examine the problems and significant prospects of tourism sector
in Karnataka and find out the key barriers of development of adventure tourism.
It is very important for the state to identify the reasons that hinder the
growth of adventure tourism sector since this segment is very competitive.