Population Locust According to Fan, Jiang, Liu, He, and

Population
Explosion

Introduction

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The rapid increase or rise in the
size of a certain population of organisms is referred to as the population
explosion. The population explosion is caused by various factors which include
increased fertility and reduced mortality. The population explosion, therefore, arises when the death
rates decline while the birth rates remain high. Among small organisms,
population explosion can also be affected by the changes in temperature,
changes in carbon dioxide concentrations, elevated ozone levels, changes in the
rainfall patterns, other climate changes as well as the combined effects of
these factors. Population explosion is mostly viewed in the perspective of the
elevated human population in the last seventy years. During this period, the
population of the world grew by more than 200 percent to the current population
of 7 billion. While the population explosion among the human is not different
to the population explosion in smaller organisms, different nature specific
factors contribute to the sudden population growth in each case.

In the current paper, five articles
relating to a population explosion in
different species are reviewed. Precisely, the population explosion of the
hairy crazy ant, burrfish, tiger moth, and yellow-spined bamboo locust will be
reviewed. In each of these articles,
either the causes, consequences or impacts of the population explosion is
evaluated. Being primary research papers, the articles give first-hand statistical facts on the population
explosion of each species. A final article reviews the population explosion in
human, especially on how to curtail population growth and fertility in the less
developed countries through economic growth. The aim of this paper is to
understand the concept of population explosion in different species through the
lenses of different researchers and experts.

Body

Population Explosion in the Yellow-Spined Bamboo Locust

According to Fan, Jiang, Liu, He,
and Blanchard (2014), Yellow-Spined Bamboo are highly migratory species which
means that their distributional ranges are expected to have a minimal
population substructure and unregular
phylogeographic structure. Therefore, the researchers sought out to study the
how the genes flow among local populations of local yellow-spined bamboo
locusts is influenced by the length of geographical distance (Fan, Jiang, Liu,
He, & Blanchard, 2014). Also, the study sought to establish whether present
geographical isolation of this specific species of locust affected their genetic structure. The researchers were also
interested in establishing whether the Pleistocene cycle had an influence in
shaping the history of the yellow-spined
bamboo locust after they experienced a population explosion. The research
relied on 393 samples of the species where their DNA was extracted for study.

The study found out that the
genetic distance among the individual species of yellow-spined bamboo locust
was low. Also, the study revealed that
there was an extreme instance of genetic differentiation where specific
population from different geographical regions were found in the same branch
(Fan, Jiang, Liu, He, & Blanchard, 2014). According to the study, factors
which contribute to the extreme diversity of the population in the
yellow-spined bamboo locust included the availability of host plant,
fragmentation of their habitat, presence of geographical barriers and their low
dispersal ability. Furthermore, the
divergence of the species was linked with the Pleistocene glacial cycles. A
study of the 16S rRNA showed that there was a population explosion in the
ancient history of the yellow-spined bamboo locust which probably occurred on
0.242 Ma (Fan, Jiang, Liu, He, & Blanchard, 2014). The population explosion
at that time might have been caused by the Quaternary glaciation events.
Finally, the study was able to prove that the structure of the population of
this particular species was significantly influenced by human activities. Such
human activities might have disoriented the geographical population pattern.

Population Explosion of Tiger Moth

In another study relating to
population explosion, Wills, Anjana, Nitin, Varun, Sachidanandan, and Jacob (2016)
investigated the impacts of the population
of tiger moths, Asota caricae. The tiger moths experience a
population explosion during monsoon in the south-western state of Kerala,
India. During such population explosions, there are outbreaks of lepidopterism,
a disease triggered by the toxic fluids and urticating and nettling scales of
adult moths and caterpillars (Wills, Anjana, Nitin, Varun, Sachidanandan, &
Jacob, 2016). In a long time, the lepidopterism symptoms were erroneously treated
as infectious fevers. The current research,
therefore, characterized chemically the tiger moth fluids responsible
for the lepidopterism symptoms among people (Wills, Anjana, Nitin, Varun,
Sachidanandan, & Jacob, 2016). Furthermore, the researchers compared the
abundance of the tiger moth against the epidemics of lepidopterism as well as
the factors that influence the population explosion of the tiger moth.

The researchers found that there
significant population of tiger moths throughout Kerala especially in regions
that experienced massive symptoms of lepidopterism. The research also showed
that when the tiger moth caterpillars
came into contact with human skin, they discharged body fluids and hairs to the
skin and thereby contaminating with the lepidopterism fever. These findings were replicated in a rats
experiment which showed a decline in their
platelets. Regarding the population dynamics of the tiger moths, Wills, Anjana,
Nitin, Varun, Sachidanandan, and Jacob (2016) found that they entirely follow
the metapopulation theory. The researchers established that the population
explosion among tiger moths was relative
to the larval abundance, rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity. Tiger
moths also have high reproductive and survival tactics at high temperatures and
minimum humidity.

Population Explosion of the Burrfish

The research by Santos, Andrade,
Verani, and Vianna (2015) primarily focused on investigating the biological
composition of the burrfish, Chilomycterus
spinosus population. The research
was undertaken in an estuary in Guanabara Bay, located
on the Southeastern coast of Brazil (Santos, Andrade, Verani, &
Vianna, 2015). Normally, the Burrfish is found in the Coasts of Argentina and
Venezuela in Southwestern Atlantic. The water at the Guanabara Bay estuary
attains a high water quality seasonally due to the semi-diurnal tidal cycle and
rainfall patterns during summers. These activities lead to the dilution of the water which leads to vertical
stratification of the water columns. The researchers used a vessel with bottom
trawls to collect the samples in the estuary, which were then measured and
weighed. In total, 14,837 samples of fish were collected for analysis.

The researchers found that the
burrfish were the majority fish species in the Guanabara Bay estuary (Santos,
Andrade, Verani, & Vianna, 2015). The burrfish comprised of 92.3 percent of
all the fish collected comprising of 130 different species indicating an
explosive growth of these fish species. While analyzing the cause of the high
abundance of burrfish in the estuary, the researchers established that various
complex factors in the tropical estuary contributed to the population dynamics of the burrfish (Santos, Andrade,
Verani, & Vianna, 2015). One of the environmental factors leading to the
population explosion of the burrfish is the effect of pollutants discharged in
the estuary which includes waste disposal from sewage treatment facilities leading to
eutrophication. On the other hand, the infusion of the effluents, alongside heavy metals, lowered the salinity of
the estuary. The salinity of the estuary was further lowered by the summer
rainfalls which created conditions favoring the growth of burrfish.

Population Explosion of the Hairy Crazy Ant

Wetterer &
Keularts (2008) The. The study looks into the impact of the ants on local
people’s lives as well as their effect on the environment. Locals blame the
ants for increased crop destruction by pests associated with the hairy ants,
Wetterer & Keularts (2008). The research maps out infested areas and
carries out a study of what could be the possible cause of the population
explosion. The research concentrates on hotspot areas and investigates whether
the ants continue to multiply and spread to other places, or they reduce in
number over time.

The research found
out that the earliest cases of P, Pubens invasions could be traced back to
Mexico, the West of India, and in the North and South of America. In a related
study, Wetterer & Keularts (2008) reports that it’s the same species (P, Pubens) that was suspected to have
been the cause for an unknown ant that recorded a population explosion in
Bermuda in the 19th century. In an investigation that features a botanical farm
that imports seedlings from other geographical spaces, Wetterer & Keularts
(2008) note that cases of P, Pubens were reported there as early as
2002. The implication of the noted point is a confirmation that the pest is
exotic. The research shows that there exists a close relationship between the
hairy ants and crop pests. All areas that hosted the ants were noted to have
recorded the presence of hemipterans such as; Monomorium ?oricola, Paratrechina longicornis,
and Linepithema iniquum, which
attacked both crops and farm structures. There are possibilities that the hairy
crazy ant can give rise to another
unknown ant that may pose more deadly dangers, Wetterer & Keularts (2008).

 

 

Economic Growth and the Population Explosion

In a bid to reduce and halt the
human population explosion in the less developed countries (LDCs), Casetti
(1977) analyzed the impact of population growth in diffusing the population
explosion. Casetti investigated the economic demographic evolution of an ideal
LDCs based on several assumptions (1977). Economic growth by itself (with the
population growth policies) has the ability to reduce the population explosion, especially in the LDCs. A model of
economic growth backed up by economic and demographic equations were used for
the investigation. The model was used to forecast demographic and economic
variables for the LDC for 100 future years through different approaches. The
ideal LDC was assumed to have a life expectancy of 48 to 56 for the male to female ratio, a GDP $200 (1970), and a
population of one million.

The study found that if the ideal
LDC grows with a 5 percent GDP growth rate per year, then the rate of
population growth can be significantly reduced from explosive levels to the
normal growth rate of a typical developed country. However, Casetti (1997)
models are not conclusive because the concurrent population after the 100 years
tenure might be unbearable. It can, therefore,
be concluded that those factors which are related to a growth in the economy
are also related to the population growth rate. Such factors include the human
resource of a country, the natural resources available in the LDC, accumulation
of capital, rate of advancement in technology, and political and social
factors. However, three of these factors: the rate of technological
advancement, accumulation of capital, and returns of scale are assumed to have
no effect in either the economic growth or population growth in the ideal LDC
under being studied. The validity of the results by Casetti (1997) is therefore
uncertain since the assumptions made are highly significant in typical LDCs and
may considerably disapprove the model.

Conclusion

Multiple research has been
conducted in a bid to understand the concept. While most studies seek to understand
the causes of the population explosion, some studies explore the effect of population explosion on both people and the
environment. According to the articles reviewed in this paper, there are
multiple causes of population explosion which include dispersal ability of the
organisms, availability of adequate hosts, larval abundance, relative humidity,
favorable weather, and the effects of effluents discharge in water bodies. Some
of the effects of population reviewed through the articles include perpetrating
the outbreak of diseases such as lepidopterism and infestation of food crops
and farm structures. Apart from the cause and effect studies, a final article
investigated on how the human population explosion can be reduced or halted in
the less developing countries. As such, a high economic growth rate of an LDC
was linked with reduced rapid population growth over a century. As most studies
focus on the cause and effects of population explosion, more research is
recommended on reducing and possibly halting the population explosion and
establishing measures to avoid such future occurrences.