The data collection for this study will be done by the questionnaire method. The sample will be 60 employees on production process in a selected manufacturing company. This study has focused to utilize the primary data and the secondary data sources. The data collected by the employees is directly based on the primary data source via questionnaires. In addition to that secondary data has been utilized for descriptive review of research introduction, Literature review and methodology. The population of this study is total employees who are working in production process in the company. There are 129 of managerial employees and 401 of clerical employees. The sample has been calculated for the percentage method. As per above calculation 60 operational level employees has been scheduled to share questionnaires.
The weighted Average method which is one of descriptive statistic method has been utilized to analyze the data that collected from questionnaires.
Essentially, the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. It is also defined as the study of methods by which knowledge is gained. Its aim is to give the work plan of research (Rajasekar, Chinnathambi, & Philominathan, 2013).Throughout this study the researcher will be discussing on the methodology that will have been used to address the research problem which is particularly trendy topic related to the occupational health and safety in Sri Lanka manufacturing industry. As a consequence the researcher will be studying the basic physical ergonomics factors that are influencing the job satisfaction among operational level employees in a manufacturing company.
Research is broadly classified into two main classes as Fundamental or basic research and Applied research. For this study the researcher has utilized the fundamental or basic method. Basic research is an investigation on basic principles and reasons for occurrence of a particular event or process or phenomenon. It is also called theoretical research. It provides a systematic and deep insight into a problem and facilitates extraction of scientific and logical explanation and conclusion on it. It helps build new frontiers of knowledge (Rajasekar et al., 2013).
Throughout this study the researcher is discussing a contemporary concept this phenomenon has been significantly tested by other studies (Matutoano, 2009)(H. Zaim & S. Zaim,2009) and (Ozdemir, 2009) the researcher would have taken them as the guidance for carrying out this study. The descriptive research style is therefore exploited and the descriptive features in this study are as follow.
The study is typically based on the prior knowledge acquired from previous researches. The literature review and the hypothesis have been developed based on the previous studies. Based on the relationships and arguments described in previous researches have used to develop hypothesis for this study. And also, the problem which is being addressed throughout this study is fundamentally based on the problems that previous researches had identified. The essence of descriptive research hence is typically a very important feature in this study.
The research design style has already defined for this study as descriptive research. This style of research can be done based on two methods in terms of cross sectional and longitudinal design. For the purpose of this study cross sectional design is used which implies the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once. As a consequence of the essence of the sample that is intended to use for this study the sample selected at this time cannot be drawn up over time. The cross sectional design therefore is used for this study rather than longitudinal design.
When designing the questionnaire the structured format is being used by specifying the set of response alternatives and the response format. Under structured format there are three sub means of distributing the questionnaire including part 01 includes demographic profile which is intended to gain employee’s demographic details and part 02 consider with multiple choice questions based on Likert Scale method and part 03 consists of several questions that have been intended to gain respondent’s ideas and suggestions.
The study is conducted with specific reference to a manufacturing company termed as D Samson industries Private Ltd . The study will be discussing the workplace ergonomic factors influencing employee job satisfaction among operational level employees. The research therefore conducts in southern province where the company is situated.
Back Ground of the Organization
The company which has been selected to conduct this survey, operates Sri Lanka’s largest and most technologically-advanced rubber manufacturing factory in Galle District of the Southern Province.
D Samson Industries (Pvt) Ltd.located in D. Samson Rajapaksa Mawatha,Bataduwa,Galle,Sri Lanka that is a Limited Liability Company established in 1962. They are the market leader in manufacturing, retailing and one of the leading exporters of footwear in Sri Lanka. As a matter of fact, D Samson Industries (Pvt) Ltd. is the first Shoe Manufacturing Plant in Sri Lanka to obtain the ISO 9001:2008 certification. D Samson Industries (Pvt) Ltd. manufactures footwear for the whole family with products ranging from gents’ to ladies’ and children’s footwear to rubber and EVA slippers while D. Samson and Sons Ltd. distributes footwear across the island through their network of showrooms and dealers.
Over the years, the Company has built an excellent reputation with its clientele as a result of the high quality standards that it has been able to maintain since the inception. The Company currently produces more than 27.5 million pairs of footwear per year and has a workforce of more than 2,200 employees.
DSI footwear is manufactured in 4 large well-designed and modern production facilities with state-of-the-art technology ranging from EVA, PVC/Rubber Injection and Direct Vulcanizing combined with advanced machinery and tools such as PVC Injection Mould Machines, EVA Injection Machines, PVC V-Strap Machines, PVC Sole Injection Machines and Hydraulic presses.
Population and sampling
A population can be described as the total sum of the individuals who exhibit certain characteristics and are of preference to the researcher. There is various type populations in the society that can be used to exploit the researches. For a example Pupils, drivers, teachers, executives, doctors, consumers, house hold wives and etc… Samples are selected from the population. Never the less a population of interest cannot be exploited to academic researches to obtain feedbacks due to the impossibility of studying all the members of a population for a research project. It might be a costly exercise and it takes too much of time.
For the purpose of this study the population encompasses with 550 total employees those who are working at both managerial and clerical level positions including 129 of managerial level( M grade) employees and 401 of clerical level( P grade) employees.
Mwanje and Gotu (2001) argue that sampling rather than complete enumeration becomes useful in terms of time, cost and available resources and Practicability (Mushipe, 2011). The sample is used due to the inability of exploiting a population to obtain responses. In fact a sample is a subset of the population. This can be further simplified as the proportion of managers and clerks extracted from the population of purpose to obtain responses for this academic research. The managers and clerks who are extracted from the population to the sample should exhibit identical characteristics since they are representatives of the population for this study.
The defined sample for this study is consisted with 60 employees in both categories. This amount has been calculated via the percentage method. According to that 60 of total sample for this study has been included with 15 of managerial and 45 of clerical employees in the company.
Conceptual Frame work and Hypothesis Building
Conceptual Frame Work
The researcher has constructed a conceptual frame work which demonstrates the impact of the physical ergonomics factors towards the job satisfaction. According to the model, employee job satisfaction has been affected by physical ergonomics factors. Further physical ergonomics factors have been categorized under three variables such as working posture, manual handling, repetitive motions and environmental conditions factors.
The conceptual framework that was developed based on the previous literature. Also describes the hypothesis built based on the above conceptual frame work.
The researcher supposed to use the hypothesis testing and based on the literature review & the objectives of the presence study following alternative hypothesis were formulated by the researcher for the purpose of make the study more valid. By using the analytical tools and mention in the analysis part following hypothesis will be measured.
H1- There is an impact of working posture on employee job satisfaction.
H2- There is an impact of manual handling on employee job satisfaction.
H3- There is an impact of repetitive motions on employee job satisfaction.
H4- There is an impact of environmental conditions on employee job satisfaction.
Design of the Questionnaire
A structured questionnaire will be used to collect data from the respondents. 60 questionnaires will be distributed among the selected sample. The survey method is used to collect data from the questionnaire. The questionnaire consists with three parts. Part 01 includes demographic profile which is intended to gain employee’s demographic details. And part 02 has been designed based on the Likert scale which is intended to gain organizational information on job satisfactory determinants from respondents. Part 03 consists of several questions that have been intended to gain respondent’s ideas and suggestions.
The covering letter for a questionnaire is one of major significant to the respondents as well as the researcher’s point of view. Typically a success of any research depends on the responds it obtains from the sample. Therefore the accuracy of the data obtained from the defined sample has a critical value to the researcher. Attaching a covering letter to the questionnaire is supported the respondents with awareness of the purpose of interpreting it and they might provide honest and accurate responses that will definitely help to the success of the eventual research study.
The covering letter briefly describes the purpose of the research, contact persons for questions and intend to build a affiliation with that person. If there includes sensitive questions to the respondents he/she can avoid from answering them if unwanted. Otherwise the covering letter admires the participation of the respondents politely. By including those aspects in covering letter clarity, transparency is enhanced.
Translation of Questionnaire
Normally a questionnaire should not present in a single language and it should be presented in a mother language in any particular country. If not it may be limited the accessibility to the survey due to the diversity of the population with different ethnical and cultural differences. A translator can be defined as’ professional one who qualifies to translate from a foreign language to a local language. He or she should assure about the faithfulness of the translation and should not compromise the original message. The major objective of translators is to create same idea between both language questionnaires and assure that the same message is sharing among all respondents in the sample. In this survey the population is consisted with both managerial and clerical employees. The majority of managerial level employees are graduates and the researcher has realized that managerial employees will definitely be able to answer the English medium questionnaire. Therefore the managerial employees will have been distributed with English medium one. In contrast when considering the clerical level employees some of them may not be fluent in English to answer this questionnaire. Therefore to avoid this inconvenience the researcher has intended to distribute the Sinhala medium translation them. Hence the researcher also has taken her priority to translate the questionnaire from English language to Sinhala language herself. Researcher will be converting her questionnaire which will be prepared in English medium in to Sinhala.
In here researcher hopes to examine the impact of employee health conditions, safety conditions and quality of work life on employee turnover intention. For the success of this research study hundred (100) respondent hope to use as a sample frame. To achieve the main objective of the study this chapter include the, analysis and discussion of the data. Those data hope to collect from the questionnaires which are given to the existing employees.
This research has used the questionnaire method to collect response of participants of the study. The Likert Scale method has been used to obtain participants’ preference or disagree of agreement with a statement or set of statements. Likert Scale is non-comparative scaling technique and is uni-dimensional (only measure a single trait) in nature. Respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement with given statement by way of an ordinal scale. Most commonly, the Like Scale is consisted with 5 point scale ranging as follows.
Under this research hope to apply multiple regressions analysis and furthermore to use testing hypothesis and also used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 version.
Significance of the study
Result of this study will provide the support through important information how to physical ergonomics factors affecting employee job satisfaction. Identifying these factors is very essential to company management decision makers to identify how to influence workplace design to job satisfaction with their response ranges. This is help to prioritize the factors accordance with percentage of response. Then management can improve these factors by adding various adjustments and programs to enhance healthy workplace for their employees. This is help to reduce or remove the job dissatisfaction of operational level employees. Ultimately, identifying how to handle these physical ergonomics factors in work environment will be caused to achieve company productivity and growth through satisfied employees.
In contrast doing this study in this company is very important and useful, because there is no any previous research had been done in this manufacturing company regarding workplace ergonomic factors in Sri Lankan context. Therefore the findings of this research are very important to future researchers who have intended to do studies the influence of ergonomic factors on job satisfaction of employees related to this company or in another manufacturing company.
Limitations of the study
Identifying and assessing the potential limitations that are encompassing with the research is critical point to the researcher to conduct the study with success. Several limitations have been identified by the researcher in this study.
Time limitation is a critical barrier for this study, because, this research should be done during the four months’ time period. In contrast the other researchers conducted by internationally and locally have been investigated the information during large scale of time period. When considering the undergraduate researches they have been given only several months for the study due to the entire scheduled educational syllabus. This time period is very short and it is caused to limit the scope of the study.
In addition to that here the considerable employee categories have been limited to only two categories named managerial and clerical.
The researcher has only focused on 550 of employee population for this study. But the considerable company has 4779 of total employees that categorized under various categories of job positions. So this has been too limited the population. This is also a major limitation of the study.
The other limitation has been emerged from considerable factors of job satisfaction. This study has considered only physical ergonomics factors for job satisfaction. But when considering the company all aspects, there are lot of factors can be identified as factors affecting job satisfaction among employees in selected company.
Also when consider about ergonomics factors that divided into three major categories according to the literature such as physical ergonomic factors, organizational ergonomics factors, cognitive ergonomics factors, but in this research studied only about physical ergonomics factors.
Hence these all limitation have been identified and considered by the researcher.