Introduction have enabled the discovery of several life-saving medications

Introduction

Millions of
animals are utilized annually in the whole world for the commercial and
scientific experiments.  Specifically,
animals are exploited to create medical therapies, recognize the toxicity of
drugs and verify the wellbeing of products that are meant for people as well as
healthcare purposes.  The research on
living things has been practiced since 500BC although debates have been raised
concerning the ethical uses of animals in experiments (Marshall and
Rowan, 2017, p. 12).    The majority of animals used in biomedical
studies act like models for human illness although they have been utilized in
addiction and behavioural testing. Additionally, animals are utilized in
product development, agricultural, space, military, and science education.  The proponents of animal research state that
such experiments have enabled the discovery of several life-saving medications
for both animals and humans hence no alternative technique for studying a
complete living thing (Davies , 2015, p.

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19).  On the other hand, the opponents of animal
use refer the act as inhumane and cruel thus suggesting substitute methods that
do not harm living organisms.

 

The major reason
for using animals in research include advancing scientific understanding,
protecting the safety of the environment, people and animals, testing and
developing remedies as well as models for studying ailments.  Most countries and international
organizations have regulations that control the use animal in experiments.  For instance, animal welfare act (AWA) is the
rule that controls the use of animals in the USA by defining the living things
that can be utilized for studies (Scanarotti et
al., 2017, p. 9).  Although the laws regulate the transportation
and housing of animals for testing, they do not standardize the experiments
leading to misuse and killing of creatures. 
To avoid mistreatment of several animals, scientists have validated and
developed alternative techniques that have shown to be more effective and safer
in establishing drugs and products for human use than animal testing.

 

Benefits of Non-animal Testing

The use of
non-animal testing have demonstrates some of the advantages when compared to
the previous methods of using creatures in experiments. Initially, the
alternative scientific assessment s are more reliable than animal research.  For instance, the study on hamsters, monkeys,
baboons, guinea pigs and rats did not show any connection between cancer and
glass fibres although human studies illustrated the correlation. Also, the
EpiDerm obtained from individual membrane cells was precise in recognizing skin
aggravation than animal studies (Bailey et al.,
2014, p. 21).   Secondly, the utilization of people tissue
in poison experiments is more effective than animal.  The fatal dose 50 study make animals to eat
lethal and poisonous substance to the extent where half of the creatures die
and those that are left are killed (Garattini and
Grignaschi, 2017, p. 13). However, a replacement
of the test using donated human tissue has shown to be accurate since the
experiment is able to target the effect of the toxin on particular organs. 

Thirdly, the use
of substitute methods is cost-effective, expedient and practical when compared
to animal tests.  The use of synthetic
skin is able to offer the chemical corrosivity determination in less than three
minutes although creature testing would take about four weeks.  Also, the DakDak technique utilized to
measure the success of sunscreens gives the report in days but animal studies
take months (Foley, 2014, p.

27). Moreover, the
traditional examination of chemicals using animals may last for five years per
substance and cost million dollars although alternative methods can analyze
hundreds of chemical within a week for the same cost.   Lastly, cruelty-free substances are
environmentally friendly.  In toxicity
studies, scientist breed, dispose and test millions of creatures as dangerous
or pathogenic garbage.

Therefore,
cruelty-free studying produce fewer wastes and is less damaging to the
surrounding. 

 

Alternatives to Animal Testing

Some of the
current alternative methods include stem cell and genetic assessment, in vitro
and human cell models, computer simulations and models, microdosing and
non-invasive imaging.

 

In Vitro Testing

In vitro study is
a method of carrying out a particular procedure in a managed environment but
outside the living organism.  Several
experiments are conducted on cells of an organism through the artificial
culture media.  Havard’s Wyss institution
has established the organs-on-chips that have human cells developed in the
state-of-the-art system to represent the function and structure of person organ
systems and tissues (Goh et al., 2015,
p. 9).   The cells can be utilized as a substitute of
animals in medicine testing, sickness study, and toxicity examination.  Moreover, the discovery has proved to
replicate diseases, medicine reaction, and human physiology more accurately
than basic animal experiments.  Some of
the organizations including the HuRel company have turned them into goods that
other scientist can use as a substitute for animals (Hartung, 2016, p.

17). 

 

Furthermore, an
assortment of tissue models and cell-based tests can be utilized to evaluate
chemical, consumer products, cosmetics and safety of drugs.  Cee Tox invented the scheme to examine the latent
of a stuff to cause membrane sensitivity in human beings which entails the
MatTek’s EpiDerm tissue replica.  The
model is a 3-dimensional and human being cell-derived that duplicates major
traits of the standard human skin (Bergeson, 2016,
p. 10).  The product is able to replace the use of
mice or guinea pigs that have been injected or applied a substance to their
skin with the aim of determining the allergic reaction.  The MatTek’s EpiDerm is used to substitute
rabbits in a prolonged and painful experiment that have been utilized to assess
the ability of a chemical to irritate or corrode the skin.  Furthermore, the EU reference library
researchers have created five distinct studies that utilize human serum to
notice pollutants in drugs with the potential dangerous fever outcome when in
the body (Ohl and Meijboom,
2015, p. 17).  

 

Computer Modelling
(In silico)

The in silico
technique refers to the testing that entails a computer or use of desktop
simulation in the research.  Various
methods of computer modelling include molecular reproduction, complete cell
simulations, and bacterial sequencing techniques. Scientists have created a
broad range of complicated CPU model that activate human being biology and sequence
of illnesses (Taylor et al.,
2014, p. 11).  The computers are used to predict and
visualize the human reaction to a particular substance or drug.  The common way the in silico techniques are
involved in the research include prediction models, modelling tools, power
analysis and planning experiments as well expert systems.  Further, the methods are used to evaluate
skin metabolism and reaction to specific chemical using the skin proteins.  The skin interaction with chemical together
with metabolism is stimulated so that to determining the structure-metabolism
and structure-toxicity relationships (Seidle T, 2013,
p. 8).  The in silico research offers enormous
advantages for refining, replacing and reducing animal testing together with
translating the outcomes of animal research into people.

 

The computer
models are able to indicate the feedback to new medicines in the human body
hence replacing the exploitation of creatures in drug tests and investigative explore.  The quantitative structure-activity
relationships are compute founded methods that substitute animal making
creating sophisticated estimates of substance’s toxicity based on its
resemblance to the present chemical and human biology knowledge (Nicolas et al.,
2015, p. 14).  By coupling modelling to sensing and imaging,
one animal can be followed hence reducing the killed figures of creatures used
in the different experiment.  There are
computer models of lungs, skin, kidneys, heart, musculoskeletal and digestive
system which are utilized to carry out virtual studies based on the
mathematical data and existing information. 

 

Human Volunteer
and Microdosing

Rapid inventions
in technology have permitted the development of complex recording and scanning
techniques which can be utilized by human volunteers without harm.  Microdosing refers to the method used in
assessing the trait of medicines in people via the administration of low doses
that cannot cause a lethal effect but is capable of triggering a cellular
reaction (Ramirez et al.,
2015, p. 13).  The human volunteer is an alternative that
entails the use of people in scientific studies but they have to sign up
without being forced.   Microdosing can
offer fundamental facts on the wellbeing of investigational substances and how are
used in individuals before a trial to a large population.  Volunteers are given small and instant drug
dose while classy imaging methods are utilized to monitor how the medicine
behaves in the body.   The application of
microdosing replaces particular examination on creatures as well as screening
out drug compounds that cannot function in humans (Franklin, 2016,
p. 22). 

 

Highly developed
mental recording and imaging methods including functional magnetic resonance
imaging with human volunteers are used to substitute archaic studies where
monkeys, cats, and rats have their brains destroyed.   The current technique permits the human
brain to be studied safely while researchers can reversibly and temporarily
induce brain malady using the transcranial magnetic stimulation (Waxenecker and
Binder, 2017, p. 11).  Human tissues are gathered via surgery such
as transplant, aesthetic operation and biopsies for investigation.  For instance, eye and skin models prepared
from reconstituted individual skin and other tissues are developed and used
instead of rabbit in irritating tests. 
Furthermore, human cells and organ can be utilized after a person dies.  The post-mortem brain parts have offered
significant facts of understanding brain regeneration as well as the impact of
Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis ailments (Flory et al.,
2015, p. 12).   Less high-tech experiments for pain, drug
addiction and nutrition can be conducted on consenting people in the interests
of developing medical science rather than using animal tests.     Human tissue is used in different ways
within a medical research thus making it relevant than animal tests.  The advantage of microdosing is that it
allows the observation of how substance or medicine works with fewer chances of
side effects.  Also, the technique lowers
the discrepancy between humans and animal reaction to a specific drug.

 

Human-patient Simulators

Human patient simulators
refer to infant and life-size manikins that replicate aspects of human
physiology including pulse, heartbeat, and respiration.   They
are computer and mechanical simulators that mimic human outlook and depict
disease and symptom processes as they manifest in the actual patient. (Schultz et al.,
2016, p. 9)  The simulators are integrated with computer
software that enables them to illustrate abnormal and normal bodily reactions
to therapeutic interventions and conditions. 
Their blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, heart and lungs are made to
respond to all human interventions. The major purpose of the human patient
simulators is replacing animals in teaching pharmacology and physiology.   The most high-tech simulators imitate
injuries and illnesses and offer appropriate biological reaction to drug
administration and medical interventions. 
More than 90% of medical schools in the United States have replaced the
use of animals in the lab during medical training with the simulators since
they are much better than killing creatures (Moran et al.,
2016, p. 13). 

 

To facilitate
effective learning, the simulators are developed based on particular clinical
setting or organ system. Some examples of the human patient simulator include
Harvey, emergency care, Pelvic ExamSim, Megacod Kelly, VitalSim and adult
SimMan (Rychert and
Wilkins, 2015, p. 16).  Additionally, the models offer more
experiential learning chances than animal tests.  For instance, the emergency care simulator offer
exact anatomical feature-rich dummy that permits bodily illustration of
different medical signs such as blinking eyes, seizures, breathing and
bleeding.   The human physiology at the
simulator offers accurate reaction to fluid administration, defibrillation,
oxygen management and drug administration. 
For advanced medical learning, TraumaMan which replicate bleeding,
breathing and realistic layers of internal organs, ribs and skin is utilized to
teach surgical procedures better than the use of live dogs, goats, and pigs (Klein and Seeley,
2015, p. 19).

Stem Cell and Genetic Testing

 

The embryonic stem
cells can grow and divide within a petri dish into different cells that create
human organ.  The in vitro version of
human tissues is superior to dishes of a single cell type to evaluate the
toxicological impact of the drug as well as providing the human impact
profile.  Moreover, the stem cells are
used in drug discovery since the ailment genes are inserted into the stem cells
which are then activated to differentiate into human tissues that can be
utilized to screen a medicine (Balls, 2014, p.

12).  Presently, the effective development of stem
cell an outside model for testing toxicity is in human heart tissue.   Several medicines have been banned from the
market due effects of cardiac toxicity. 
One of the examples is terfenadine that caused 100 deaths in America due
to adverse cardiac effects (Huffington, 2016,
p. 17). Stem cells from
different organs are developed which help the experiments to target a specific
part of the body which is not possible in animal testing.  Additionally, genetic testing entails the
identification of changes in protein, genes or chromosomes with the aim of
confirming or ruling out a condition. 
Through genetic testing, human volunteers can be used to confirm any
genetic disorder rather instead of using animals. 

 

Non-invasive
Imaging Techniques

The non-invasive
methods create body images for clinical use or medical science. Some of the
medical procedures include an examination of the disease, diagnosis or approaches
seeking to reveal a condition.   The
invention includes ultrasound, nuclear imaging, MRI and CT scans as well as
other techniques that are able to show the image of inner organs or parts that
cannot be seen by the naked eyes (Kojima, 2015, p.

8).  
The imaging has been used in neuroscience and is effective because of
its precision.  Currently, the technique
is replacing animals particularly in nursing and medical education where the
pictures are used rather than killing creatures.

 

Issues Associated with Animal Testing

The use of animal
testing is associated with various social, legal and ethical issues. Animal
studies prolong the suffering of the population since it takes a long time for
helpful cures to be determined. Most of the resources are wasted including time
and money because some of the experiments fail to be successful.  More than four million animal studies are
done annually in United Kingdom for biomedical research which leads to the
violation of animal rights making the possible benefits irrelevant (Bonamin et al.,
2015, p. 11).

 

Animal testing is
inhumane and cruel since the majority of creatures in research are subjected to
forced inhalation, feeding, extended physical restraint, water and food
deprivation, burns and other wounds.  The
Draize eye study utilized by cosmetic corporations to assess pain due to soap
and other goods entail incapacitation of rabbits with eyes open for several
days so that will close to avoid the substances away (Vinardell, 2015,
p. 8).    Furthermore, animals are distinct from
people a poor test for subjects.  The
cellular, metabolic and anatomic dissimilarities between human beings and
animals make creatures to be poor models for persons (Brooker, 2014, p.

15). 

 

Some of the
medicines that pass animal experiments are not necessarily safe for people to
use.  The 1950s thalidomide which is a
sleeping pill caused severe deformities among 10000 babies despite being
analyzed on animals before commercial release (Ostroumov, 2016,
p. 11).   The later tests on pregnant guinea pigs,
hamsters, cats, rats, and mice did not cause birth defect unless it was given
in high doses.  Also, the animal test on
the arthritis medicine Vioxx demonstrated to have a protective impact on the
mice’s heart although it causes 2700 cardiac deaths and heart attacks before
being banned from the market (Millot et al.,
2014, p. 17).

 

Besides, animal
tests can mislead scientist into ignoring potential treatments and cures.  Some of the harmful or ineffective chemicals
to animals are valuable when utilized by people.  For instance, aspirin is dangerous to some
species although it is beneficial to humans. 
Moreover, the intravenous administration of vitamin C helps in curing
sepsis in persons but has no effect on mice (Agell et al.,
2015, p. 12).  Other example is tacrolimus which is used to
decrease the chances of organ transplant rejection but it was almost cancelled
due to animal test results.  Therefore,
animal experiments might have misled the identification of important drugs
since any substance that cause harm to some species is considered hazardous. 

 

Further, more than
95 percent of animals involved in research are not secured by the animal
welfare act.  The law doe no cover birds,
fish, mice and rats which comprises of 95 % of all creatures used in scientific
studies.   The AWA protected only 820812
animals utilized for the experiment in 2016 thus leaving more than 25 million
others uncovered (Foley, 2014, p.

19).   The unprotected creatures are vulnerable to
abuse and misuse without the intervention of the AWA.   Additionally, research has found serious
flaws in most of publicly financed by the UK and US animal experiments using
primates and rodents.   About 87 percent
of the studies did not randomize the assortment of animals while only 59% stated
the objective and hypothesis.  Socially,
religious traditions require people to be merciful to all creatures thus
experimenting on them causes harm.  For
instance, the Bible, Buddhism and Hinduism doctrines teach individuals not to
harm living things (Seidle, 2013, p.

16). 

 

Example of Research

One of the researches
that would limit the utility of the scientific result without the animal models
is when discovering new drugs for the new diseases. For instance, insulin would
not have been recognized if the dog pancreases were not removed.  In 1921, Frederick Banting together with
medical scholar Charles Best discovered hormone insulin from the pancreatic
extracts of the dogs (Bergeson, 2016,
p. 23).  The researchers injected insulin into one of
the dogs and noticed that it decreased blood sugar levels to ordinary.  To perfect their study, the grinded and
filtered dog’s surgically tied pancreas and isolate isletin.   The pair developed insulin for treating
diabetes which helped to save millions of lives. 

 

Conclusion

Conclusively,
animal testing has played part in the discovery of several life-saving
treatments and cures. The major reason for using animals in scientific
experiments is to advance knowledge as well as determining new drugs and
effects of products before they are released to the market.   The use of animal testing has been existing
since the ancient times although industrialization and technology have
increased the number of creatures killed or utilized every year.  As a result of technology advancements, alternatives
for animal studies have been introduced which include non-invasive imaging,
computer simulators, in vitro, stem cells, microdosing and virtual trials
techniques.  The major advantages of
substitute methods include cost-effectiveness, reliability, accuracy and
environmentally friendly.  Animal testing
is accompanied by different social, ethical and legal issues since creatures
are misused and killed.   Also, some of
the animal research can mislead scientists because people are different from
rodents and other used living things. 
Therefore, future experiments should focus on using modern methods
rather than relying on animal testing.