Humans them from animals. Humanity as humans possess, could

Humans live in a world of language as Fromkin, Rodman,
and Hyams state (2003: 7). Language, as one of the attributes which humans
have, distinguishes them from animals. Humanity as humans possess, could be
understood by understanding the nature of language itself. Language and
humanity are connected through communication. Kreidler (1998: 3) states that
all animals also have some communication system to communicate to each other,
but only humans have language which enables them to produce and understand
message directly without outside stimulus unlike animals. Widdowson (1996: 3-4)
adds that language serves as a means of cognition and communication which
enable humans to think for themselves and to cooperate with other people in
their community. As humans communicate and cooperate through language, it could
enables them to rise above the condition of mere brutish beings, real or
imagined.

            Conversations
occur with two or more participants which include the speaker and the listener.
According to Liddicoat (2007: 3) one of the most noticeable features of
conversation is that speakers change. This was called turn-taking. In a
conversation, mostly only one person speaks at a time then the transition
occurs between the speaker and the listener, sometimes with few gaps and
overlaps. She also explains that speaker change is a normative process which
must be achieved by participants in the conversation. It makes the turn-taking
behavior is socially constructed behavior, not the result of an inevitable
process.

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            This
mini-research attempts to analyze and discuss about pauses used in the
conversation of the characters in Hamburg’s Why Him. This research is not the first
research that focuses on pauses. Another researcher that also conducts this
research is Khapsoh with her research entitled An Analysis of Pauses,
Overlaps and Backchannels in The Reasonable Doubt Movie by Petter Howitt.
The difference between this research and the previous research is the focus of
the research. The previous research focuses on pauses, overlaps and
backchannels while this research only focus on pauses.

            This
research is in the scope of pragmatics. Based on Kreidler (1998: 18),
pragmatics is one of the branches of linguistics that is concerned with
meaning. It has the same concern with semantics which also focuses on people’s
ability to use language meaningfully. What makes it differ from semantics is
that semantics is mainly concerned with a speaker’s competence to use the
language system in producing meaningful utterances and processing utterances
produced by others, while the main concern of pragmatics is a person’s ability
to receive meanings from specific kinds of speech situations. Yule (1996: 3)
adds the explanation that semantics is the study of the relationships between
linguistics forms, how they are arranged in sequence, and which sequences are
well-formed, while pragmatics is the study of the relationships between
linguistic forms and the users of those forms.

            This
study focuses on pauses that appear in the conversation between characters in Hamburg’s
Why Him. Based on the phenomena of pauses found in the movie, it can be
concluded that there are two main problems in Hamburg’s Why Him. The first
problem is related to what kind of pauses that occur in the conversation in the
movie and which is the most dominant. The second problem is about the reason
why pauses occur in the conversation in the movie. In line with the focuses of
problems the researcher formulated the objectives of this research are to
identify the types of pauses used by the characters in Hamburg’s Why Him and to
identify the reason why the characters use pauses in their conversation in Hamburg’s
Why Him.

            The
results of this research are expected to be useful and give contribution in
linguistic especially in pragmatics, also to provide both theoretical and
practical significance. Theoretically, it is expected that the results of this
research can enhance the specific knowledge in linguistic field about the
analysis of pauses that is used in daily conversation and communication.
Practically, it is expected that this research will be useful for English
Literature students especially for them who is majoring in linguistics in
identifying and describing the types of pauses, analyzing the functions of
pauses, and identifying the factors of using pauses. It is also expected that
this research will be an inspiration for the other researchers to conduct a
research concerning in pauses and can be beneficial to the readers in general
in improving their knowledge on pauses.

            Fromkin,
Rodman, Hyams (2003: 207) state that pragmatics focused on the interpretation
of linguistic meaning in context. Yule (1996: 3) adds that there are four areas
that pragmatics is concerned with: the study of speaker meaning, the study of
contextual meaning, the study of how more gets communicated that is said, and
the study of the expressions of relative distance. There are advantage and
disadvantage in studying pragmatics. The advantage of studying language through
pragmatics is that one can talk about people’s intended meaning, their
assumptions, their purposes or goals, and the kinds of actions that they are
performing when they speak. The disadvantage is that all these very human
concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in           a
consistent and objective way.

            Liddycoat
(2007: 1) explain that conversation is the way in which people socialize and
develop and sustain their relationships with each other. However, most people
did not realize that conversation is more than just the use of a linguistic
code. Other elements such as eye gaze and body posture, silences and the real
world context in which the talk is produced, are also important. Yule (1996:
71) uses the analogy of the working of a market economy to explain conversation
structures. In the market, there is a scarce commodity called the floor which
can be defined as the right to speak. Having control of this scarce commodity at
any time is called a turn. In any situation, where control is not fixed in
advance, anyone can attempt to get control. This is called turn-taking. Any
possible change of turn point is called a Transition Relevance Place or TRP. To
make it simple, Yule (2010: 145) argues that conversation is an activity where
two or more people conducting the conversation take turns at speaking.

            Most
of the time, conversation occurs with two or more participants. Only one
participant speaking at the time and they take turns. Sometimes the transitions
are not smooth which leads to overlaps or pauses. According to Maclay and
Osgood (2015: 24), there are two types of pauses which are filled pauses (FP)
and unfilled pauses (UP). Filled pauses are all occurrences of the English
hesitation devices ?, œ, r, ?, m. Unfilled pauses (UP) were marked when
there was judged to be an abnormal hesitation in speech that could not be
referred to the previous category. UP has two major forms: silence of unusual
length and non-phonemic lengthening of phonemes.

            Fors
(2015: 22) argues that when people speak, they cannot avoid producing pauses.
This is because as humans, they need to inhale because human’s lung have
various and limited capacity. Pausing to breathe is a psychological necessity,
but people also pause due to cognitive needs such as gaining time to plan what
they want to say. A pause occurs at the very moment the speaker is not able to
produce another syllable, either because out of lung’s capacity or because they
do not have anything left to say. She also states that people plan for their
pauses. Considering the goal of speech which is to communicate to each other,
another reason why people do pauses arise which is to allow the person they are
speaking with take the turn.

            Why
Him is an American movie directed by John Hamburg, written by Hamburg and
Ian Helfer. The movie starring James Franco, Bryan Cranston, Zoey Deutch, Megan
Mullally, Griffin Gluck and Keegan-Michael Key. The movie released in 2016 by
20th Century Fox with comedy as its genre. The started when Stephanie Fleming
invites her boyfriend, Laird Mayhew, to “Netflix and chill”. Meanwhile, back in
Grand Rapids, Stephanie’s parents are holding a birthday party for her father,
Ned Fleming. Stephanie, with her webcam, congratulates her dad when suddenly
Laird comes into her bedroom flashing the cam.

The Fleming visits Laird’s
house and are surprised because Laird is actually a CEO of a video game which
makes him wealthy. Ned disagree that Stephanie chooses Laird as her boyfriend
because he has a free spirit and uses too much foul languages but Stephanie
begs her dad to give Laird another chance. The problem rise when Ned figures
that Laird wants to propose his only daughter. After consuming enough time, Ned
and Laird met a huge conflict resulting Stephanie mad at them. However, after Stephanie
comes back home, Laird and Ned have a talk and the conflict was done. In the
end, Ned gives Laird permission to marry her daughter, Stephanie, although, she
prefer continuing her study.

The movie is about a
relationship of Laird and Stephanie and how the two sides of culture clash. The
culture from the Fleming from Michigan does not fit with the culture of Laird
as a tattooed billionaire. The differences appear on the way Laird living
without paper while Ned is the boss of printing company and the language both
side use. The Fleming seems to be a family which holds manner. Laird, who grows
up without parents, in the opposite of the Fleming, uses direct and vulgar
utterances.

            Another
researcher who have conducted research under the discussion on pauses is Khapsoh
(2017) from English Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Adab and
Humanities, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta with his
research entitled An Analysis of Pauses, Overlaps and Backchannels in The
Reasonable Doubt Movie by Petter Howwitt. The differences between this
research from the previous research lie on the focus of the research. The
previous research focuses on pauses, overlaps and backchannels while this
research only focus on pauses.

There are three types of
research in general. They are quantitative research, qualitative research, and
mixed methods. Vanderstoep and Johnston (2009: 7) states that quantitative
research specifies numerical assignment to the phenomena under study, whereas
qualitative research produces narrative or textual descriptions of the
phenomena under study. Cresswell (2003: 18) support the theory with his
arguments that a quantitative approach employs strategies of inquiry such as
experiments and surveys, and collects data on predetermined instruments that
yield statistical data. He also states that a qualitative approach uses
strategies of inquiry such as narratives, phenomenologies, ethnographies,
grounded theory studies, or case study. The final method or approach, according
to him is mixed methods which employs strategies of inquiry that involve
collecting data either simultaneously or sequentially to best understand
research problem. The data collection also involves gathering both numeric
information as well as text information so that the final database represents
both quantitative and qualitative information.

This research applied
descriptive qualitative since it emphasizes on describing the phenomenon of
language use which is the usage of pauses. This research also applied content
analysis approach. Hancock (2009: 14) explains that the emphasis in
conventional content analysis is on the frequency, where researchers would
count occurrences of a word, phrase or theme. This research analyzes the usage
of pauses by the characters in Hamburg’s Why Him.

            This
research using the data taken from the conversations among the characters in Hamburg’s
Why Him. The data are in the form of words, phrases, clauses or sentences
spoken by the characters in the movie. The contexts of the data are utterances
that was uttered by the characters in Hamburg’s Why Him. There are two kinds of
data source used in the research which are primary data sources and secondary
data sources. The primary data sources in this research are taken from Hamburg’s
Why Him. The secondary data sources are taken from books and journals related
to this research. The secondary data are used to find theories in order to
answer the research questions.

            In
this research, the researcher is the primary instrument for collecting the
data. In line with Sarah (2013: 11), the researcher is the qualitative research
instrument as compatibility, yield, suitability, and feasibility are key
considerations to entertain before diving into a qualitative research project.
Thus, in this research, the researcher used the capability to collect data,
interpret and analyze the data related to pauses that used by characters of Hamburg’s
Why Him. The researcher also used a secondary instrument to assist the process
of the research.

            Vanderstoep
and Johnston (2009: 189) states that qualitative studies have four types of
data collection technique which are interviewing (face-to-face
question-and-answer process), ethnographic observation (observing people
enacting culture), analysis of documents and material culture (written texts or
cultural artifacts), and visual analysis (e.g., interpretation of mediated
communication texts such as films or television programs). The data in this
research are collected and classified with visual analysis data collection
technique which will be filtered into some words or phrases in utterances used
by characters. The steps in collecting data in this research are: (1) the
researcher watches the movie and carefully observes the utterances used by characters
in the movie; (2) the researcher browses the subtitle of the movie to assist on
analyzing the utterances; (3) the researcher checks the accuracy of the subtitle
of the movie and the movie itself; (4) the researcher marks every utterance
that contained pauses; (5) the researcher counts the data and categorizing each
pauses used in Hamburg’s Why Him. While the data analysis had undertaken
several steps. The steps of the data analysis were: (1) the researcher put the
utterances that contained pauses into the data sheets; (2) the researcher
classified the sentence that contained pauses based on research questions; (3)
the researcher analyzed the classified utterances; and (4) the researcher drew
a conclusion.