Haemorrhoids nerve endings in the wall of the colon

Haemorrhoids are also known as piles and are caused by swelling of the veins in the bottom of the large intestines around the anus. They can be caused by many things like cycling, infections or poor diet, constipation or straining to go to the toilet. The symptoms that would occur include irritations around the anus including itching. Swelling around the anus and sometimes bleeding during passing stools. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease also known as GORD or more commonly know as heartburn or acid reflux. This happens when we have eaten and the oesophageal sphincter lets through the food to the stomach and fails to close or closes too slow that stomach acid rises back up to the oesophagus. This can cause symptoms such as chest pain, burning in the throat and chest, vomiting or the taste of vomit in the throat also causing burning at the back of the throat.  Loperamide is classed as an opoid receptor agonist. It works on the smooth muscle of the intestinal wall slowing down the movement of the bowel/gut allowing the reabsorbtion of nutrients and less water to be released into the gut which adds to the effects of diarrheoa. It is used to help stop diarrheoa or gastroenteritits. Also it can be used in conditions such as IBS or for patients with ileostomy bags and chron’s diseaseMetoclopramide is a dopamine receptor antagonist, it works by blocking the receptor in the brain which causes the feeling of nausea, increasing the movement of the stomach to help food to move through the intestines more easliy. Metoclopramide can be used for treatment and prevention of nausea and vomiting. These symptoms can be associated with morning sickness, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, migraines, anxiety. Metoclopramide can be given in oral or rectal form if a patient is vomiting and can’t keep a tablet down. Senna is a stimulant laxative and works by stimulating the nerve endings in the wall of the colon and rectum increasing movement of the bowel to help move stools through the colon and out through the rectum. It is used to relieve constipation. Some medications can cause constipation such as codeine. It can also be used to help with treatment of haemorrhoids to allow easier passing of stools to reduce irritation to the haemorrhoids