From reading “Macbeth”, by William Shakespeare, Macbeth shows a lot of signs of mental illnesses. Macbeth could possibly be diagnosed with Bipolar Disease or Borderline Personality Disorder. Anxiety Disorder- Obsessive Compulsive or Panic Disorder. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or a Sleep Disorder. Schizophrenia, or Paranoia. The real question is, which does he have? Bipolar disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) is a illness within the brain that causes a person’s mood, energy, activity levels, and their ability to carry out day-to-day tasks to shift(nimh.nih.gov). Typically people with Bipolar disorder tend to have “episodes” described as manic or depressed episodes. Manic episodes show signs of an increase of energy/activity levels, feeling very “jumpy” or “weird”, difficulty sleeping, more agitated, irritable, or “touchy” etc. Depressive episodes may show symptoms similar of an overwhelming feeling of sadness, feeling down about themselves, empty or hopeless. They may have very little energy/ decreased activity levels. They may develop an irregular sleep/eat schedule, they may sleep, or eat, too little or too much. They could begin to forget things and have trouble concentrating. In extreme cases they may begin to think about death or suicide. Borderline Personality Disorder is described as a constant change of various moods, views of oneself, and their behaviors. People who suffer from this may experience phases of anger, depression, and anxiety known as “episodes”. Signs often include abrupt actions and complications within their relationships(nimh.nih.gov). They go through multiple shifts in moods and show doubts within themselves and the world, causing them to change their minds multiple times. Other signs of Borderline Personality Disorder include; the need to avoid abandonment, intense and unstable relationships with others, recurring behavior of self-harm and suicidal thoughts, and a continuous empty feeling etc(nimh.nih.gov). Panic disorder is a type of anxiety characterized by unexpected panic attacks, which could possibly feel as if you’re experiencing signs of a stroke or heart attack. Symptoms could possibly include, a pounding or fast heartbeat, sweating, shortness of breath or a smothered feeling, chest pain, feeling as if you are detached from reality, a fear of losing control or going crazy, and even a fear of dying(nimh.nih.gov). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is very common. It’s described as a chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts, and the feeling of having to repeat an action multiple times. People who struggle with OCD may have possess symptoms of obsessions, compulsions, or both, which interfere with all their aspects of life. Some obsessions include the fear of having germs and contamination, intrusive thoughts towards others or themself, and feeling that things must be symmetrical. Compulsions include the need to clean things excessively, arranging things in a particular way, repeatedly checking in things, and compulsive counting(nimh.nih.gov). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is developed from a shocking, scary, or dangerous experience. It is very different from the typical feeling of fear from a certain event. Ongoing PTSD is classified as Chronic, and short-term PTSD is Acute. Not everyone develops PTSD, yet some may develop it from events like unexpected deaths. Symptoms of PTSD can be classified as re-experiencing, avoidance, arousal and reactivity, and cognition and mood. Re-experiencing symptoms: flashbacks, bad dreams, frightening thoughts, and physical symptoms such as a racing heartbeat or sweating. Avoidance symptoms include the exclusion of oneself from places, events, or objects that may trigger their memory, and abstaining from certain thoughts or feelings that are in relation to the incident. Arousal and reactivity symptoms can cause someone to be easily startled, give a tense or “on edge” feeling, complications with sleeping, and having enraged outbursts. Cognition and mood symptoms include difficulty with remembering key parts of the incident, a loss of self-esteem, a continuous guilt feeling, and a decrease in their interest for activities they once enjoyed(nimh.nih.gov). Schizophrenia is labeled as a very chronic and severe illness. It affects your thoughts, emotions, and actions. People with schizophrenia may seem like their surroundings are not real. Although it is not as common as other mental disorders, the symptoms can be very disabling. Symptoms are categorized as positive, negative, and cognitive. Positive symptoms include psychotic behaviors such as hallucinations, delusions, unusual thinking habits, and disturbed body movements. Negative symptoms include disruptions to everyday emotions and behaviors, reduced pleasure for their everyday life, and complications with beginning and continuing with activities etc. Cognitive symptoms include an impaired ability to understand info and applying it to decision making, lack of focus, and complications with “working memory”(nimh.nih.gov). Paranoia is the irrational and persistent feeling that you are constantly in danger, or that you are subjected to be harmed. Paranoia can be broken down into three different types. Paranoid personality disorder which is considered the mildest type, sufferers have very little trust of the world but continue to function well with their surroundings. Delusional (paranoid) disorder is described by the dominance of one delusion but show no signs of mental illness. Their behaviors are based upon which delusion is present at the moment. Paranoid schizophrenia is the most severe type. Strange delusions and hallucinations, especially bizarre ones, are common to the condition. Paranoia symptoms range from mild to severe, including; difficulty to trust others, aggressive and argumentative behavior, and giving harmful meanings to others remarks etc.(nimh.nih.gov). Some symptoms that stood out to me was that Macbeth had multiple hallucinations and began to lack sleep due to troubled dreams. He has held a guilty conscience due to his actions. In Act 2, Scene 1, Macbeth has hallucinations of a floating dagger pointing towards Duncan with blood on it, representing the murder of King Duncan. In Act 3, Scene 4, Lady Macbeth holds a feast, but during the feast Macbeth begins to have hallucinations due to grief. He begins to see Banquo’s ghost sitting in his chair with everyone else. Throughout the play Macbeth is constantly disturbed by a feeling of guilt, and soon begins to have difficulty sleeping at night due to bad dreams of his victims seeking revenge on him. Based on the research I have done, Macbeth has Paranoid Schizophrenia and PTSD. The hallucinations and feeling of guilt show that he has severe symptoms of Paranoia, more so classified as Paranoid Schizophrenia. And the constant feeling of guilt and the recurring bad dreams are both common symptoms of PTSD, showing that Macbeth did indeed suffer from not just one, but multiple mental illnesses.