Electrical of the Requirements in Technical Writing Presented to:

 

 

 

Electrical
Engineering Department

 

 

Comparison between
Three-phase System and Single-phase System

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An Analytical
Report Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements in
Technical Writing

 

 

 

Presented
to:

Prof. Rio S.
Aburido

ENGL5 Instructor

 

 

 

Presented
by:

Domingo,
John Marvin D.

Guilalas,
Mark Conrad Z.

Torres,
John Maynard L.

 

 

January
23, 2018

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Summary

1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

2.0 Components………………………………………………………………………………………………………
1

            2.1.
Power Transmission………………………………………………………………………………..2

            2.2.
Economical Cost…………………………………………………………………………………….
3

            2.3.
Industrial Uses……………………………………………………………………………………….
4

            2.4.
Complexity…………………………………………………………………………………………….4

            2.5.
Range of Application……………………………………………………………………………..
5

3.0 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5

4.0 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………..
5

5.0 References………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6

6.0 Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

Three-
phase system and single phase systems are everywhere. These systems can be used
to transmit power from the generation site to the consumer’s side. The
comparisons between these two-systems are mainly their power transmission,
economical cost, industrial uses, complexity and range of application.

            Both systems can deliver the
necessary power to the consumers, but three-phase systems deliver constant
power, unlike in single phase, the power is pulsating. In terms of economical
cost, three-phase system costs less than single-phase system because of the
amount of wire used.

            In industrial applications, the
three-phase system is at its advantage over single phase because three-phase
motors have higher efficiency and better features.

            Connection wise, the single phase is
better because it uses a less complex design or connections of wires. Also,
single-phase system has a broader range of application.

            Generally, both systems have its own
advantages and disadvantages. So, in terms of power distribution and
consumption, the industry utilizes both systems to provide flexible and better
service.

INTRODUCTION

Due
to the continuous development of technology, the demand for power has risen
through the years. In fact, almost everything around us uses electricity to
function. Gadgets, appliances, machines, some cars, and many more are just some
of the examples of the things we use every day that uses power. The electrical
engineers then developed systems that will be able to distribute power from the
generation site to the consumers. These systems are namely three-phase system
and single phase system.

This
analytical report’s main objective is to show the strength and weaknesses of
both single phase and three-phase system.

This
report shows the difference of the two systems in each of the following
components: Power transmission, economical Cost, industrial uses, complexity
and range of application.  Single Phase
system is a type of system which uses two-wire system while the three-phase
system can either be a three wire or four wire system.

Practically,
the world needs both of these power systems. Each of the systems serve its own
purpose in the community when it comes to industrial, commercial, and residential
but in this study, the two systems will be compared side by side, emphasizing
their strengths and weaknesses.

 

 

COMPONENTS

Power Transmission

            Power Transmission is the transmitting
or delivering of power from the generation site to the consumers. Both of the
systems can transmit power but these two systems have their own respective
strengths in the distribution of power.

            In three-phase system, the power
delivered is constant. This constant power is needed in large motors that are
widely used in the industry. While in single phase system, the power delivered
is pulsating. Pulsating power is not recommended to be used for large motors
because it will case vibrations and this will lower the motor’s efficiency. The
graph of the power in a single phase system and three-phase system is shown in
figure 1 and 2 respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
1 Power in a single phase system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
2 Power in a three phase system

 

 

As
you can see from figure 1, the power in a single phase system becomes 0 two
times in each cycle while in three-phase system even though one of the line’s
power becomes zero, the other two line’s power are not zero thus it can provide
constant power to the loads.

Economical Cost

Since
transmission of power requires the use of wires, cost is a major component to
be considered. Out of the two systems, three-phase system is cheaper because it
uses less amount of wire than single phase system for the same line voltage and
power delivered to the load. This can be proved by looking at the derivation
below. (Assuming both of the wires are made from the same conductor and have
the same length.)

                                                               (1)

Eq.
1 shows the power dissipated in a single phase system.

                                             (2)

Eq.
2 shows the power dissipated in a three phase system.

                                                                                                                                (3)

Eq.
3 shows the ratio between the power in a single phase and three-phase system.

                                                                  (4)

Eq.
4 shows the equivalent equation of eq.3 after substituting the formula for
resistance.

                                                   (5)

Eq.
5 shows the ratio between the materials used in a single phase and three-phase
system.

By substituting the equation = from eq. 4 to eq.5 we get

This shows the single phase system uses
33.333 percent more material compare to three-phase system.

Industrial Uses

            In the industry, mainly factories,
uses large motors in order to speed things up and lessen manual labor. This
large motors need electricity to function but motors are designed in a way that
they can either only be connected to a three-phase or a single phase.
Therefore, there are two general types of motor, single phase motors and
three-phase motor. Three- phase motors are superior to single phase motors in
many ways. They are more efficient, more durable, cheaper , it gives higher
output, weigh less and have self-starting capabilities. In short, three-phase
motors are better than single phase motors. Therefore, three-phase is the
system that is more practical to be implemented in the industry.

Complexity

            Connection is also a thing to observe. In a single-phase
connection, it only requires two wires to be used in order to supply power.
With that said, it is obvious that the three-phase system uses three wires to
do the same. The connections in three-phase systems are far more complicated
and complex. It requires a certain connection in order for it to work properly.
The single-phase also requires a certain connection, but it being composed of
only two wires makes it a less complex than a three-phase system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
3 Source- Load combination in a single phase system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
4 Source- Load Combination in a three-phase system.

 

Range of Application

In
terms of range of application, single-phase system has a broader range of
application. It is because not all people consume large amount of power. Single
phase can provide enough and sufficient amount of power that is only needed for
residential uses. Also the everyday appliances that we use is specifically
designed for single phase system. Also, as you can observe, the number of
residential houses is very large compare to the number of factories, malls,
etc. that need high amount of power.

CONCLUSION

            In this analytical report, the main
objective is to show the different strengths and weaknesses of the two systems.
Based on the findings, there is actually no system that is entirely better than
the other one. Both systems have its own functions in the transmission and
distribution of power. It may be that one system is better in their features
and components, but that doesn’t mean that the other one will be disregarded.
It has been proven that the world need both of these systems to provide,
produce, and supply power to the consumers in a way that everyone will be
satisfied and no power is wasted.

RECOMMENDATION

            Since this report’s purpose to
analyse and compare the two systems and in the field these two systems are
already implemented, we cannot recommend anything at this point.

 

 

REFERENCES

·        
Single-Phase vs Three-Phase Power
Explained, August 30, 2017 by Tripp Lite

Single-Phase vs Three-Phase Power Explained

·        
Why three phase better than single
phase, September 2, 2015 by DP Aurosish, O Engineer,KSK
Energy Ventures Ltd.

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-three-phase-better-than-single-phase

·        
What’s the Difference Between Single
Phase and Three Phase AC Power Supplies?, Copyright
AEGIS Power Systems, Inc. 1995-2015.

http://aegispower.com/index.php/2015-01-15-19-35-10/179-what-s-the-difference-between-single-phase-and-three-phase-ac-power-supplies

·        
FASCO Single-Phase Motor & FASCO
Three-Phase Motor, Copyright 2018 Regal-Beloit
Corporation. All rights reserved.

https://industrialclearance.com.au/wp-content/uploads/TFCM-TFC-Y2HE-1-2-721×600.jpg

https://industrialclearance.com.au/wp-content/uploads/F-A-Y-6.jpg

·        
Three Phase System
Advantages over Single Phase System

Three Phase System Advantages over Single Phase System

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDICES

“Power Distribution System”

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

Electrical
Engineering Department

 

 

Comparison between
Three-phase System and Single-phase System

 

An Analytical
Report Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements in
Technical Writing

 

 

 

Presented
to:

Prof. Rio S.
Aburido

ENGL5 Instructor

 

 

 

Presented
by:

Domingo,
John Marvin D.

Guilalas,
Mark Conrad Z.

Torres,
John Maynard L.

 

 

January
23, 2018

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Summary

1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

2.0 Components………………………………………………………………………………………………………
1

            2.1.
Power Transmission………………………………………………………………………………..2

            2.2.
Economical Cost…………………………………………………………………………………….
3

            2.3.
Industrial Uses……………………………………………………………………………………….
4

            2.4.
Complexity…………………………………………………………………………………………….4

            2.5.
Range of Application……………………………………………………………………………..
5

3.0 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5

4.0 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………..
5

5.0 References………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6

6.0 Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

Three-
phase system and single phase systems are everywhere. These systems can be used
to transmit power from the generation site to the consumer’s side. The
comparisons between these two-systems are mainly their power transmission,
economical cost, industrial uses, complexity and range of application.

            Both systems can deliver the
necessary power to the consumers, but three-phase systems deliver constant
power, unlike in single phase, the power is pulsating. In terms of economical
cost, three-phase system costs less than single-phase system because of the
amount of wire used.

            In industrial applications, the
three-phase system is at its advantage over single phase because three-phase
motors have higher efficiency and better features.

            Connection wise, the single phase is
better because it uses a less complex design or connections of wires. Also,
single-phase system has a broader range of application.

            Generally, both systems have its own
advantages and disadvantages. So, in terms of power distribution and
consumption, the industry utilizes both systems to provide flexible and better
service.

INTRODUCTION

Due
to the continuous development of technology, the demand for power has risen
through the years. In fact, almost everything around us uses electricity to
function. Gadgets, appliances, machines, some cars, and many more are just some
of the examples of the things we use every day that uses power. The electrical
engineers then developed systems that will be able to distribute power from the
generation site to the consumers. These systems are namely three-phase system
and single phase system.

This
analytical report’s main objective is to show the strength and weaknesses of
both single phase and three-phase system.

This
report shows the difference of the two systems in each of the following
components: Power transmission, economical Cost, industrial uses, complexity
and range of application.  Single Phase
system is a type of system which uses two-wire system while the three-phase
system can either be a three wire or four wire system.

Practically,
the world needs both of these power systems. Each of the systems serve its own
purpose in the community when it comes to industrial, commercial, and residential
but in this study, the two systems will be compared side by side, emphasizing
their strengths and weaknesses.

 

 

COMPONENTS

Power Transmission

            Power Transmission is the transmitting
or delivering of power from the generation site to the consumers. Both of the
systems can transmit power but these two systems have their own respective
strengths in the distribution of power.

            In three-phase system, the power
delivered is constant. This constant power is needed in large motors that are
widely used in the industry. While in single phase system, the power delivered
is pulsating. Pulsating power is not recommended to be used for large motors
because it will case vibrations and this will lower the motor’s efficiency. The
graph of the power in a single phase system and three-phase system is shown in
figure 1 and 2 respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
1 Power in a single phase system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
2 Power in a three phase system

 

 

As
you can see from figure 1, the power in a single phase system becomes 0 two
times in each cycle while in three-phase system even though one of the line’s
power becomes zero, the other two line’s power are not zero thus it can provide
constant power to the loads.

Economical Cost

Since
transmission of power requires the use of wires, cost is a major component to
be considered. Out of the two systems, three-phase system is cheaper because it
uses less amount of wire than single phase system for the same line voltage and
power delivered to the load. This can be proved by looking at the derivation
below. (Assuming both of the wires are made from the same conductor and have
the same length.)

                                                               (1)

Eq.
1 shows the power dissipated in a single phase system.

                                             (2)

Eq.
2 shows the power dissipated in a three phase system.

                                                                                                                                (3)

Eq.
3 shows the ratio between the power in a single phase and three-phase system.

                                                                  (4)

Eq.
4 shows the equivalent equation of eq.3 after substituting the formula for
resistance.

                                                   (5)

Eq.
5 shows the ratio between the materials used in a single phase and three-phase
system.

By substituting the equation = from eq. 4 to eq.5 we get

This shows the single phase system uses
33.333 percent more material compare to three-phase system.

Industrial Uses

            In the industry, mainly factories,
uses large motors in order to speed things up and lessen manual labor. This
large motors need electricity to function but motors are designed in a way that
they can either only be connected to a three-phase or a single phase.
Therefore, there are two general types of motor, single phase motors and
three-phase motor. Three- phase motors are superior to single phase motors in
many ways. They are more efficient, more durable, cheaper , it gives higher
output, weigh less and have self-starting capabilities. In short, three-phase
motors are better than single phase motors. Therefore, three-phase is the
system that is more practical to be implemented in the industry.

Complexity

            Connection is also a thing to observe. In a single-phase
connection, it only requires two wires to be used in order to supply power.
With that said, it is obvious that the three-phase system uses three wires to
do the same. The connections in three-phase systems are far more complicated
and complex. It requires a certain connection in order for it to work properly.
The single-phase also requires a certain connection, but it being composed of
only two wires makes it a less complex than a three-phase system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
3 Source- Load combination in a single phase system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure
4 Source- Load Combination in a three-phase system.

 

Range of Application

In
terms of range of application, single-phase system has a broader range of
application. It is because not all people consume large amount of power. Single
phase can provide enough and sufficient amount of power that is only needed for
residential uses. Also the everyday appliances that we use is specifically
designed for single phase system. Also, as you can observe, the number of
residential houses is very large compare to the number of factories, malls,
etc. that need high amount of power.

CONCLUSION

            In this analytical report, the main
objective is to show the different strengths and weaknesses of the two systems.
Based on the findings, there is actually no system that is entirely better than
the other one. Both systems have its own functions in the transmission and
distribution of power. It may be that one system is better in their features
and components, but that doesn’t mean that the other one will be disregarded.
It has been proven that the world need both of these systems to provide,
produce, and supply power to the consumers in a way that everyone will be
satisfied and no power is wasted.

RECOMMENDATION

            Since this report’s purpose to
analyse and compare the two systems and in the field these two systems are
already implemented, we cannot recommend anything at this point.

 

 

REFERENCES

·        
Single-Phase vs Three-Phase Power
Explained, August 30, 2017 by Tripp Lite

Single-Phase vs Three-Phase Power Explained

·        
Why three phase better than single
phase, September 2, 2015 by DP Aurosish, O Engineer,KSK
Energy Ventures Ltd.

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-three-phase-better-than-single-phase

·        
What’s the Difference Between Single
Phase and Three Phase AC Power Supplies?, Copyright
AEGIS Power Systems, Inc. 1995-2015.

http://aegispower.com/index.php/2015-01-15-19-35-10/179-what-s-the-difference-between-single-phase-and-three-phase-ac-power-supplies

·        
FASCO Single-Phase Motor & FASCO
Three-Phase Motor, Copyright 2018 Regal-Beloit
Corporation. All rights reserved.

https://industrialclearance.com.au/wp-content/uploads/TFCM-TFC-Y2HE-1-2-721×600.jpg

https://industrialclearance.com.au/wp-content/uploads/F-A-Y-6.jpg

·        
Three Phase System
Advantages over Single Phase System

Three Phase System Advantages over Single Phase System

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDICES

“Power Distribution System”