Abstract used to minimize the effects of human factors.

  

Abstract

 

This is a project that will
analyze the human factor components that are involved in military maintenance
and compare them to those found in the commercial maintenance industry. No
aircraft maintenance system can be totally free from error and the cost of this
human error in aviation maintenance can take a heavy toll. Human error can be
caused by a wide variety of problems to include poor to no training, stress,
workload, and disorientation. Having the proper level of awareness and training
would be able to assist in reducing the amount of error that may be found on a
flight line and increase the overall level of safety. This project will use a
research type approach that will be qualitative in nature to examine the human
error in both environments and determine if either the military or the
commercial industry has found a better way to mitigate and reduce the
physiological, psychological, and behavioral aspects of human error on the
flight line.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A
Human Factors Comparison between Military Maintenance and Commercial Maintenance

 

Statement of the Project

The individual project will identify the differences between military and
commercial maintenance as it pertains to human factor issues and the processes
that are used to reduce the impact of these human factor issues. The author
expects the comparative research will show which maintenance practices can be better
used to minimize the effects of human factors. The author of this project is
working toward a BS in Aeronautical science. This individual project will
demonstrate the authors knowledge in the concepts of critical thinking, quantitative
reasoning, information literacy, communication, scientific literacy, cultural
literacy, lifelong personal growth, aviation/aerospace/aeronautical science,
aviation legislation and law, aviation safety, and aviation management and
operations.

 

Introduction

It has been observed that human factors have a larger impact on aviation
related accidents and incidents than we once realized (Shappell &
Wiegmann, 2000). While there is no system that can be totally error free it is
also true that individuals in aviation career fields, and even people in
general, are prone to make mistakes (Rodrigues & Cusick, 2012). It is
important to have a safety program that will help prevent these mistakes by
promoting safety inspection, personnel training, and have a risk assessment and
avoidance agenda.

            It has been identified that 70%-80% of all aviation
accidents, both civilian and military, were caused by human error (Shappell
& Wiegmann, 2000, p. i). To try and combat this human error issue, DRs.
Shappell and Wiegmann teamed up and produced the Human Factors Analysis Classification
System model. An approach that influenced Dr. Shappell and Dr. Wiegmann was
James Reasons accident causation model that was developed in 1990, better known
as the “Swiss Cheese” model (Rodrigues & Cusick, 2012). This model showed
how there are multiple levels of an organization that can lead to accidents.
This influence is why the HFACS model uses the same concept as the Swiss Cheese
model’s four levels and attempts to put an end to an accident by finding and
managing the organizational influences, unsafe supervisions, preconditions for
unsafe acts, and the unsafe act itself (Rodrigues & Cusick, 2012).

With these models human factors tools in mind, the author will review
military and commercial maintenance practices and incidents and compare them.
The author will gather available data from FAA rules as well as available Air
Force Instructions (AFI’s). It is the goal of the author that the analysis and
comparison of this data would lead to an improved aircraft maintenance
environment that would end in improved safety for maintainers, pilots, and
aircraft.

 

Program Outcomes to be addressed

Critical Thinking

“The
student will show
evidence of
knowledge at a synthesis level to define and
solve
problems within professional and personal environments” (ERAU, 2017, p. 13).

            The
author understands critical thinking to be an objective analysis or evaluation
of a subject that leads to a solution or recommendation of the subject and can
assist in the decision-making process. The author will demonstrate critical
thinking by analyzing resources that will assist in validating the information
and help in the evaluation of human factors in both military and commercial aircraft
maintenance programs. The author will use this material to present a solution
and give a recommendation. The resources that will be required include the Flight
232 Accident Report, the Federal Aviation Administration’s Operator’s Manual
for Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance, “Aircraft Accident Investigation” by
Wood and Sweginnis, “Commercial Aviation Safety” by Rodrigues and Cusick, “A
Model to Explain Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance” by Johnson and Maddox, Air
Force Instruction 94-204, and Human Factors Analysis Classification System case
studies. These resources will be acquired from accident reports written by the
National Transportation Safety Board, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University text
books, and other scholarly documents found online.

Quantitative Reasoning

            “The student will show evidence of the use of
digitally-enabled technology & analysis
techniques to interpret data for the purpose of drawing valid conclusions
and solving associated problems” (ERAU,
2017, p.
14-15).

            The
author understands quantitative reasoning to be the application of basic math
skills to analyze and interpret real world quantitative information and to
develop a relevant conclusion from the information. The author will demonstrate
quantitative reasoning by accessing quantitative data to support the evaluation
of human factors in both military and commercial aircraft maintenance programs.
The resources that will be required include the Flight 232 Accident Report, the
Federal Aviation Administration’s Operator’s Manual for Human Factors in
Aviation Maintenance, “Aircraft Accident Investigation” by Wood and Sweginnis,
“Commercial Aviation Safety” by Rodrigues and Cusick, “A Model to Explain Human
Factors in Aviation Maintenance” by Johnson and Maddox, Air Force Instruction
94-204, and Human Factors Analysis Classification System case studies. These
resources will be acquired from accident reports written by the National
Transportation Safety Board, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University text books,
and other scholarly documents found online.

Information Literacy

“The
student will show evidence of meaningful research, including gathering
information from primary and secondary sources and incorporating and
documenting source material in their writing” (ERAU, 2017, pp. 15-16).

            The author understands information
literacy to be a set of abilities that are used to recognize useful information
and have the ability to find, evaluate, and use the information. The author
will demonstrate the use of this ability by acquiring valid sources created by
a relevant author or entity. The valid sources that will be required include the Flight
232 Accident Report, the Federal Aviation Administration’s Operator’s Manual
for Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance, “Aircraft Accident Investigation” by
Wood and Sweginnis, “Commercial Aviation Safety” by Rodrigues and Cusick, “A
Model to Explain Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance” by Johnson and Maddox,
Air Force Instruction 94-204, and Human Factors Analysis Classification System
case studies. The author will acquire these from scholarly documents, Embry-Riddle
Aeronautical University text books, accident reports written by the National
Transportation Safety Board, and documents published by the government.

Communication

            “The student will show evidence of
communicating concepts in written, digital, and oral forms to present technical
and non-technical information” (ERAU, 20,
pp.16-18).

            The
author understands communication to be the application of thought into a
convincing written and oral presentation that is to the point and has logical
organization. The author will make use of Microsoft Word to write the proposal
and project, Microsoft Excel for statistical as well as quantitative analysis,
and PowerPoint for required presentation. Embry-Riddle’s website and Canvas
will be used for communication with the class instructor and fellow classmates.
Embry-riddles Eagle-Vision will be the live-virtual mode of communication used
present the final product. The author will use references, in-text citations,
and present a product that is free of grammar errors. To accomplish this, the
author will abide by the current APA Publication Manual.

Scientific
Literacy

“The student will show evidence of analyzing scientific evidence as it relates
to the physical world and its interrelationship with human values and
interests” (ERAU, 2017, pp. 18-19).

The author understands scientific literacy to be the application of
general scientific evidence that will support the project. The author will demonstrate
this skill by acquiring reviewing human physiology, human psychology, and other
behavioral aspects that lead to human error to support the project objective.
The author will obtain physiological, psychological, and behavioral
information. This information will be obtained from prior course textbooks as
well as information gathered from accident reports written by the National
Transportation Safety Board.

Cultural Literacy

            “The
student will show evidence of the analysis of historic events, cultural
artifacts and

philosophical
concepts” (ERAU, 2017, pp. 19-20).

The author understands cultural literacy to be the understanding and
application of historical perceptions and contributions obtained from an
assortment of cultural groups. To accomplish this, the author will refer to
different organizational, aeronautical, and safety cultures. Cultural events will
be evaluated and used to make any recommendation. The author will find
historical accident reports and evaluate their likely causes. These sources
will be acquired from NTSB accident reports.

Lifelong Personal Growth

“The student will show
evidence of the skills needed to enrich the quality of life through activities
which enhance and promote lifetime learning” (ERAU, 2017, pp. 20-21).

The author understands lifelong personal growth to be a collection of
skill, knowledge, and action by an individual over time to increase their
position and abilities to benefit them. The author will evaluate how training
and education has an impact on performance. This will be accomplished by review
of human factors information taken from scholarly articles. This will be acquired
from evaluation of “A Model to Explain Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance”
by Johnson and Maddox and the authors own 21 year career in military aircraft
maintenance.

Aeronautical Science

“The student will show
evidence of advanced concepts of aviation, aerospace, and aeronautics to solve
problems commonly found in their respective industries” (ERAU, 2017, pp.
22-23).

            The author understands aeronautical
science to consist of multiple parts to include flight operations, the physics
of flight, flight physiology, human factors, and aviation safety and security
among others. The author will demonstrate his knowledge of this by evaluating
human factors and analyzing maintenance operations. The resources
that will be required include the Flight 232 Accident Report, the Federal
Aviation Administration’s Operator’s Manual for Human Factors in Aviation
Maintenance, “Aircraft Accident Investigation” by Wood and Sweginnis,
“Commercial Aviation Safety” by Rodrigues and Cusick, “A Model to Explain Human
Factors in Aviation Maintenance” by Johnson and Maddox, Air Force Instruction
94-204, and Human Factors Analysis Classification System case studies. These
resources will be acquired from accident reports written by the National
Transportation Safety Board, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University text books,
and other scholarly documents found online.

Aviation Legislation and Law

“The student will show evidence of the basic concepts
in national and international legislation and law as they pertain to the
aviation, aerospace and aeronautics industries” (ERAU, 20×7, pp. 23-24).

The author understands aviation legislation and law to be the evaluation
and analysis of regulatory requirements as that impact maintenance operations,
security, and safety. The author will demonstrate aviation legislation and law
knowledge by evaluating and analyzing all relevant laws and regulations that
affect the project. The resources required include “Practical Aviation Law” by J.
Scott Hamilton, Air Force Instruction 94-204, and the FAA’s Title 14
regulations. These resources will be acquired from, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical
University text books, and other documents found online.

Aviation Safety

“The student will show evidence of basic concepts in
aviation safety as they pertain to the aviation, aerospace, aeronautics
industry” (ERAU,
2017, pp. 24-25).

            The
author understands aviation safety to be the ability to apply critical thinking
to specific aviation safety and security topics that pertain to the project. The
author will demonstrate knowledge in aviation safety by identifying and
evaluating the role human factors has in military and commercial maintenance
environments.  The resources that will be required
include the Flight 232 Accident Report, the Federal Aviation Administration’s
Operator’s Manual for Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance, “Aircraft Accident
Investigation” by Wood and Sweginnis, “Commercial Aviation Safety” by Rodrigues
and Cusick, “A Model to Explain Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance” by
Johnson and Maddox, Air Force Instruction 94-204, and Human Factors Analysis
Classification System case studies. These resources will be acquired from
accident reports written by the National Transportation Safety Board,
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University text books, and other scholarly documents
found online.

Aviation Management and Operations

“The student will show evidence of sound, ethical
management principles within standard aviation, aerospace, and aeronautics
operations” (ERAU, 2017, pp. 25-26).

            The
author understands aviation management
and operations to be the ability to apply critical thinking to the management
concepts, procedures, and techniques aspects of aviation management and
operations. The author will evaluate the techniques management groups use to
identify human factors and combat human error. The author will analyze the
Flight 232 Accident Report, the Federal Aviation Administration’s Operator’s
Manual for Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance, “Aircraft Accident
Investigation” by Wood and Sweginnis, “Commercial Aviation Safety” by Rodrigues
and Cusick, “A Model to Explain Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance” by
Johnson and Maddox, Air Force Instruction 94-204, and Human Factors Analysis
Classification System case studies. These resources will be acquired from
accident reports written by the National Transportation Safety Board,
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University text books, and other scholarly documents
found online