Abstract support of spaces somewhere else. Introduction (Saunders, 1981)


Capitalism has always sought to structure and shape the
society in a manner which is beneficial in maximizing its profit. Whether to
maximize the profit or produce goods and services for the public, central idea is
always the accumulation of wealth by production of spaces. Under capitalism after
the resurgence of the idea of neo-liberalism Muslims in Delhi are being
rediscovered as human staff that are part of accumulation task not to support
the Muslims population but consider in a manner that can help in the
accumulation process. The Muslims are thankful for the employment opportunities
that exploit their aptitudes, time, work and resources and other assumed
integrative favorable circumstances that this relationship carries with it.
These neighborhoods in Delhi are incorporated in the city economy, and even
worldwide economy, yet just so far as the adjust of collection of capital is
tipped in support of spaces somewhere else.

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(Saunders, 1981) investigates the topic of uniqueness of
concentrate certain highlights, issues and inquiries as specific to the just “urban”
and reports that it is easy to appreciate that inquiries of control, belief
system, mistreatment, estrangement are not specific just to urban communities.
Saunders examines the works of Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim to point
out that even though cities are not the central focal point of their analysis,
all three of them consider “the city as a historically important object of
analysis in the context of transition from feudalism to capitalism”.

(David, 1978)
work in this context firmly built-up that creation and association of spaces is
primarily there to facilitate the accumulation of wealth by the capitalist.
Lefebvre is prodigious in making an important suggestion contained in his book,
The Production of Spaces (1991), that
capitalist that can use the wealth accumulated as a tool for reconstructing and
set free the social world from oppression and starvation. Lefebvre help us in
understanding the concept of Marxist “Spatial Decoding” that facilitates how
the cities work and develop under capitalism. He adds that space is not just a
continuous area that is available but a tool that needs to be conquered and
integrated for maintenance of capitalism (Merrifield, 2002). For Lefebvre in a
city capitalist use space just as an asset for accumulation purposes but he
also highlights that within this city market places of play and leisure are
also created by the capitalist that are produced mainly for ideological
purposes (Lefebvre, 1991).

This paper examines the work of Ghajala Jamil (assistant
professor in Centre for the Study of Law and Governance), ‘The
Capitalist Logic of Spatial Segregation: A Study of Muslims in Delhi’ in
Economic and Political Weekly. January 18, 2014. Vol XLIX. No 3. In this
article she has discussed the condition of specific Muslim neighborhood where
belonging to the same religion and community how the peoples get segregate
themselves from others once they acquire wealth and power that is “capitalist
logic of spatial segregation”. She considers the Muslim neighborhood under the framework
of Lefebvre’s “representational spaces” that are inspired with structured
social meaning as the space for inhabitants and users. His case focuses on the
two big clusters of Muslim population, namely Seelampur and Jamia Nagar.

On the eastern side of stream Yamuna, famously called trans-
Yamuna in Delhi is a belt of restrictive or dominatingly Muslim settlements
starting from Seelampur and stretching out to Loni Outskirt including New
Seelampur, Gautampuri, Jaffrabad, New Jaffrabad, Welcome, and so on. Seelampur
and Welcome are first two regions in this belt. The direction of these regions
started as resettlement settlements. At the starting of this belt are jhuggi
(shanty) squatters and slum resettlement colonies with largely lower caste
Muslim population. Small manufacturers live in Jaffrabad and Chauhan Bangar
with skilled and unskilled labour employed by them. New Jaffrabad is an adjacent
locality but it is different from the rest. It has upper middle-class people
mainly manufacturers and professionals who managed to live separately in a
gated society.

Seelampur a place where you can find many things varies from
needle to the parts of an air plane also called by a name mini Pakistan because
of some illegal activities present in that area that all happens under the
patronage of police. Not all the peoples are bad in this area but even they try
to leave this and live some where else they can’t live because of the mentality
of the peoples. There is a word that is connected with the names of the Muslim
and that is ‘pollute’. I try to find out whether this description about Muslim
is true or not, I asked one of my colleague who belongs to Azamgarh(Uttar
Pradesh) and he said that it is veracious only where low income families live
mainly working in butcher and barber shops. The type of work they are doing it
becomes very difficult to maintain good environment in that area. The Hindu
wants to maintain a tip-top and healthy environment in their neighborhoods they
refuse the Muslims to live in that area. Even if they try to live, they live in
fear because if in a case any riots happen they know that they will get killed
like in the case of Gulbarg society in Ahmedabad. Why the Muslims segregate
themselves from others? The reason can be many but the major reason is that these
segregated places develop due to impotence of the Muslim people, they feel
themselves safe in these segregated areas, it gives them chance to create
opportunities look forward and make an identity for themselves.

Under capitalism after the resurgence of the idea of
neoliberalism the upcoming business sectors in India like software firms, industries
need a large number of skilled people to perform jobs and willing to hire even
Muslims. At the same time there were designated universities in India like
Jamia Millia Islamia that were creating opportunities for Muslims for living in
a better position. The middle-class locality if we start with Jamia Nagar now
become more diverse in terms of economic classes. The wealth and power that are
acquired by each individual makes them more positive and stand themselves at a
relatively higher position. Now they can afford to live good colonies not in
Hindu areas but in separate colonies because they find difficult to accommodate
themselves in these areas. Result of this a process called “sanskritisation”
among Muslims where the lower power group follow the same strategy for
individual upward mobility.

Harvey claim that capitalism reproduces itself spatially. It
creates a “landscape in its own mage” (Harvey, 1985). Maximizing profit
is the main aim for capitalism and in this case capitalist seeks opportunity in
those areas where accumulation can happen easily. This explains that why
manufacturing activity shifted from old Delhi to Trans- Yamuna area because it
offers cheaper land price and deregulation or minimal enforcement of
regulations in these areas. The people who afford to migrate in these areas
symbolize as harnessing benefits of the higher level of economic activities in these
areas (Fainstein & Fainstein, 1978).

Muslims are following the same pattern
because they are fed by the idea of living in “ghettos” and now these
professionals have large disposable income they can afford to live in separated
gated colonies. The Taj near Gandhi Nagar in the trans-Yamuna region is a gated
housing society of affluent and elite Muslims. The residents are proud of
living in a colony of the “educated, intellectual and professional” Muslims.
The heavy tall gate is guarded by private guards, the lawns are well manicured,
and generators are available for power backup. The old residents and most
educated elite ones vehemently deny ever feeling any threat of violence. They
feel, as one of the earliest members of the society Jamshed puts it,


Violence happens where lower
classes live, at the slightest commotion they get agitated that Islam is in
danger. We, here, are educated… we understand… we keep quiet… we’ve never
experienced anything…


We have seen that spaces in the city are produce purely for
capital accumulation and this process is cyclic as seen in the case of Hossman’s
project in renovation of Paris in 1918. Beside accumulation task many other
activities also produce by capitalist like play and leisure areas and we have
seen that how the Muslims have reaped the benefits of the higher level of
economic activities with help of modern education. Not only the Muslims but
specially the middle class in the country. What if we can find a new way of
practicing capitalism that does not mean that accumulation is used for distribution
between the poor but creating opportunist for those poor that are really worthy
for that. I think that the advocacy planning theory plays a vital role in this
part. You can root out capitalism until there is human desire that always wants
to achieve something new and in todays modern world where science and
technology is present the desire never finish off. Only thing is that some
satisfied at reaching certain level and some not.