ABSTR body too quickly. Antidiuretic medicines are used in

ABSTR ACT

Medicinal Plants have been a significant source promoting
Anti-Diuresis. In this review, plant extracts of different parts of the plants
have been evaluated for their anti-diuretic property. As herbs are less toxic
compared to the synthetic drugs, they were focused in this study. Plants still represent a
large untouched source of structurally novel compounds which might serve as a
template for the development of a novel drug. The
data supporting the anti-diuretic effects of some of the well-known medicinal
plants are existing. This article reviews the various medicinal plants
used traditionally as anti-diuretics and their efficacy and optimum dosage on
animal models. This Review may act
as a crucial milestone for the researchers in the preference of medicinal plant
for carrying their work on anti-diuretics.

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Key words –
anti diuretic, anti-diuresis, Medicinal Plants

AKSHAY SHINDEa*

aDepartment of Biological Science, Birla Institute of
Technology- KK Birla Goa Campus, India

*Corresponding
Author

Email: [email protected]

 

INTRODUCTION

For  decades together, research on traditional
plants have been predominant in India as they are promising in curing plethora
of diseases and have insignificant  side
effects compared to the other synthetic drugs in the market. An antidiuretic is
a compound or drug, when administered to an organism, helps in controlling body water balance by
reducing urination and opposing diuresis.

Worldwide trend in the utilization of plant with
medicinal properties has created a tremendous need for information about the
properties and uses of these plant. The
Indian Traditional Medicine like Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani are based on the
use of plant materials. Herbal drugs have gained importance and popularity in
recent years because of their efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness 1.  An antidiuretic is a substance that helps the body retain
water. By preventing  the kidneys and
bladder from discarging  water from the
body too quickly. Antidiuretic medicines are used in  treating  bed-wetting, incontinence and similar
conditions. Some herbs have natural antidiuretic properties2  Plants
represent still a large untapped source of structurally novel compounds that
might serve as lead for the development of novel drug 3 Currently,
only five drugs are available as antidiuretics: vasopressin or ADH and its
analogue lypressin or desmopressin, thiazide related diuretic chlortalidone,
sulphonylureal hypoglycaemic agent chlorpropamide and antiepileptic
carbamazepine of which only the first two are specific 4. It is indeed crucial that efforts should
be made to introduce new medicinal plants to develop effective and cheaper
drugs5.

 

 

TRADITIONAL
PLANTS EXERTING ANTI-DIURETIC PROPERTY

Vernonia
cinerea

Vernonia cinerea commonly
known sahadevi in hindi. It  is a
genus of about 1000 species of herbs and shrubs in the family Asteraceae. Having small shrub  growing 
found all over india in the temperature climate growing till the height
of 3 feet. It is also seen to have therapeutic effects against certain
gastrointestinal and skin disorders and also some immunomodulatory effects. The
roots and leaves of this plant is also known to cure fever, hiccups, kidney
disease and stomach discomfort 6. The plant is used to treat nerve disorders
and is also a potent analgesic 7The plant has antimicrobial,
antitumour,antibacterial,  antihelmintic,
, antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic effects..It has tremendous medicinal properties
8Powdered leaf was successively and exhaustively extracted with solvents of
increasing polarity using, methanol and water. These extracts were investigated
for anti- diuretic activity in rats using standard method. 9

Antidiuretic activity of the extracts, VCML
(methanol extract) and VCALE (aqueous extract) the antidiuretic responses of
the extracts, VCMLE and VCALE were highly significant in comparison with the
control animals. Methanol and aqueous extracts are an effective antidiuretic,
which supports the claim that the plant can be used to cure urinary
incontinence. While the chloroform extract of the leaf induced significant
diuresis

                                                                                                       

Brassica
oleracea

Brassica oleracea. Commonly known Broccoli
is an edible green plant belongs to the family Brassicaceae. Broccoli is a fast
growing annual plant that grows 60-90 cm tall they are rich in vitamin C,
dietary fiber and also contain isothiocyanate, glucoraphin, sulforaphane,
selenium.They possess several anti-cancer properties. These
anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefits for the
treatment of various diseases and disorders. 10 Broccoli is one among
the few vegetables that claims to possess ant diabetic potency10 Sulforaphane
prevents neurodegeneration and thereby has its effect on Alzheimer’s disease
and Parkinson’s disease. Other characteristics include inflammation, neuronal
loss and oxidative stress 11

. In Bangladesh, aside from B. oleacea’s
used in diarrhoeal treatment (Khan MS, 1975 & Uddin SN et al., 2004).
Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate anti diuretic activity
of B. oleracea’s  polar (ethanolic) and
non-polar (carbon tetrachloride) extract was evaluated on swiss albino mice.

The leaves of
Brassica oleraceae were dried and   was
successively and exhaustively extracted with both polar and non polar solvent.  Both, polar and
non-polar fraction showed anti diuretic properties on both male white rabbits
and male Sprague-Dawley rats. 12

 

 

pandanus
fascicularis lam.

Pandanus
fascicularis Lam (syn. P. odorattisimus) commonly referred as screw pines are
palm-evergreen trees or shrubs belong to the genus  Individual plants can reach a height of 20
meters supported by aerial roots. Patients and medical  practitioners deemed the root and rhizome to
be effective against diabetes  13,14. The extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis
produce significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the
traditional application of this herb in treating various diseases associated
with inflammation and pain.15

 

Prop roots of
P. fascicularis both ethanol and aquoues extract were prepared  ethanol extract by percolation and cold maturation, respectively . diuresis was induced by
a diuretic agent called as furosemide. Vasopressin
(ADH) was considered as a standard. The results
demonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly reduced  the total urine output. Nonetheless ,
antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH the treated animals significantly (p
0.05). Further, the methanol extract (leaf/bark in 5:1 ratio) was non-toxic in
terms of overt signs of toxicity, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and
aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea and creatinine levels. Phytochemical
evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, unsaturated sterols, unsaturated
terpenes, unsaturated lactones, lucocyanins, tannins and polyphenols and
cyanogenic glycosides. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Aporusa lindleyana
has moderate and safe oral antidiuretic activity.23

Ficus racemosa 

Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) is an evergreen, moderate to large-sized
spreading, lactiferous, deciduous tree 15-18 m high, without prominent aerial
roots. Also Antidiabetic potential of various parts this
plant  has been evaluated in alloxan and streptozotocin-induced diabetic
rats and rabbits24 Antibacterial potential of F. racemosa against
different bacterial strains. Stem bark ethanol extract was found to be very
effective against Alcaligenes faecalis Bacillus cereus Proteus
mirabilis Pseudomonas aeruginosa, , Staphylococcus aureus, , , and Salmonella
typhimurium bacterial strains, indicating the scope to discover
bioactive natural products that may act as template in development of new
pharmaceuticals in order to address unmet therapeutic needs25

Antidiuretic
potential of D of the bark of F. racemosa  was evaluated  in rats using three doses (250, 500 or 1000
mg/kg) and was orally administered . ADH was used as reference Drug. It was demonstrated
that both the low and high-doses of D and ADH significantly reduced the total
urine output. The D-induced antidiuresis had a rapid onset within an hour,
peaked at 3 h and lasted throughout the study period (5 h). Antidiuretic
potential of D when compared to standard ADH was about 50% lower . The D caused
a reduction in urinary Na+ level and Na+/K+ ratio, and an increase in urinary
osmolarity indicating multiple mechanisms of action. The results provide
scientific support for its claimed antidiuretic action and deserve intensive
scrutiny26

 

 

CONCLUSION AND
FUTURE ASPECTS

 This review is intended
to provide an overview of the existing 
knowledge about  the use of some
herbal  medicinal plants  as Anti-diuretics. Herbal medicines are
widely used in India and as well as other countries because of there higher
efficacy and less cost. The review has also included Ethnobotnay of the
evaluated medicnal plants which gives an insight of traditional usage of
plants.

Herbal medicines are in great demand in
the developed as well as in the developing countries for primary health care because
of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and
lesser costs. The review has included the botanical characteristics of the
plant which helps in identification of the plant, Ethnobotany which give
traditional use of the plant, and the reported activities of the plant. However, the number of studies carried out, further studies
to be conducted to confirm reported activities. Such evidence is needed to
provide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines and
even be helpful in the development of future medicines and treatments and
treatment guidelines. By this review, it can be concluded that in the
midst of nature there are numerous 
plants which possess potent Anti- diuretic activity. Herbal medications
are free from side effects and toxicity unlike the allopathic medicines. The
current review projected to provide an overview of knowledge adjoining the
herbal medicines used as diuretics.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author is grateful to the
authors/editors of all those articles and journals from where the data for this
article has been reviewed and discussed and also a special Thanks to Dr. B K Manjunath
and Divakara Ramachandrappa for the constant guidance and
support