Science and Engineering
Science and Engineering
Abstract— In today’s world when everything’s going tech-savvy, and there’s a
quest of making every possible thing handy, mobile communications have socially
and economically contributed a lot in the development of different countries
across the globe. Because of their increasing demand, researchers also tend to
find every possible way to make the technology more efficient and come up with
new launches in the market, which after sometimes sets a trend, thus increasing
the number of customers. The main aim of these time to time launches is to get an
efficient way which has higher data transmission rate. Here in this paper, we
discuss about the upcoming generation of networking technologies, i.e. 5G,
expected to come into force, towards the
end of this decade.
this era,mobile communications have become an indispensable part of every
persons’ life, and this would continue forever for the upcoming generations with
much more sophisticated and advanced technologies which would be helpful to
bring another revolution in the field of electronics.Having started with 1G at
its initial stage, now we have succeeded in reaching upto 4G and this process
of touching milestones would continue further with the invention of much better
technologies such as 5G,5G+ and so on.After 4G currently being in action, it’s
a high time that scientists go for achieving 5G, with work already under
progression and promises that say we would achieve it till the end of this
decade i.e. 2020. 5G would cover a vast variety of use cases, that are: Mobile
broadband, requiring very high performance; and massive Machine to machine,
requiring extremely long battery life. 5G would also ultimately utilize a wide
range of frequency bands which would include existing and new spectrums, which
may extend to higher frequencies above 30GHz.
Expectations from 5g
consideration current market scenario, there will be many expectations that 5G
would be required to accomplish.Some of them are mentioned below-:
Faster-: The foremost requirement of any
new technology in the market is that it must be faster than its previous
versions. Thus, a higher data transmission rate is expected from 5G.
Higher Capacity-: It is expected that
towards the end of this decade there will be approximately 1000 times more
mobile traffic than that was in 2010.Thus this new technology must be able to
manage traffic that is very much larger than that is today.
Larger crowd connectivity-: It will be
expected that this network provides a huge connectivity among the crowds so
that there’s no delay even if the number of users is more at a specific time on
specific place of the globe.
Energy Efficient-: Today, when we are
all dependent on technology, there’s also a need to go greener along with the
development, what we call as sustainable development. Thus, the improvised
version of any technology must be such that it is less energy consuming and is
less prone to become the cause of disasters. Also in machine to machine
terminals there’s a need to manage the energy efficiently for a longer battery
Less Expensive-: With the increased
performance rate , it is also desirable that the cost per unit is not such that
it’s not affordable for all. The cost must be normalized.
Reduced Latency-: With this reduced
latency it would be a gateway for cloud computing, and many of the real-time
applications and tactile internet.
METHOD OF ACHIEVING 5G
The basic model
of 5G networking technology consists of two evolutionary paths. The first is
through improvised LTE (Long Term Evolution) versions keeping the backward
compatibility. The second path is to achieve it through newly accomplished
Radio Access Technology that are not compatible with the backward LTE. Also in
this approach the 5G will achieve a wider range of frequency that are both
optimized and agonistic. A better way came out that the 5G technology consists
of enhanced LTE RAT and a new RAT. The tight networking between the two RATs would
be supported either by carrier aggregation or dual connectivity. The more
superior radio technology that is meant for cellular systems should utilize the
unlicensed spectrum bands. It may also be that full duplex, which is for the
simultaneous transmission and receiving of the carrier may be achieved. Non-Orthogonal
Multiple Access (NOMA) is to be introduced as an intra-cell multi-user
multiplexing scheme which will utilize a new domain: the power domain, which has
not been not sufficiently utilized in the previous generations. The Advanced Cloud-Access
Radio Network(C-RAN) architecture would handle all the required processing for
carrier aggregation (CA) and its mobility within one baseband unit (BBU), which
would drastically reduce the amount of signaling for the core network.
what we conclude is that with the arrival of 5g technologies there would be a
much more better connectivity across the globe which would lead to much more
development. Also, there is a expectation that 5G would be covering a wide
range of frequency. Many of the new upcoming technologies could be established
in the 5g era more efficiently. These efforts of bringing 5G into existence
would lead to a much broader coverage area covering all over the world even at
the frequencies which are much higher and a single Radio Access Technology 5G
Systems which will be covering all spectrum bands.
We have given much efforts in this report.
However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of
many individuals. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them.
Firstly, thanking the ALMIGHTY
without whose grace we would have never been able to complete this report
successfully. We are highly indebted to Dr.
Ramesh Vaddi for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for
providing necessary information regarding the topic & also for his support
in completing it. We specially thank all the lab assistants for their timely support.
We would like to express our gratitude towards our parents & members of IIIT-NR for their kind co-operation and
encouragement which helped us in completion of this report. Our thanks and
appreciations also go to the people who have willingly helped us out with their