A to trauma. Philips & Herlihy (2009) supported the

     A lot of factors may cause a students’
distress, and its effects negatively impacts their school performance making
them being unable to focus and concentrate which decrease their level of
competency. According to Lambert, J. et al. (2014), phenomenon like natural
disasters and terror attacks, or those events that are not controlled by the
students are some of the major reasons of their distress resulting to trauma.
Philips & Herlihy (2009) supported the claim and they said that natural
disasters and devastations may greatly impact school campuses anywhere.  Advancement of media technology has a huge
contribution to this because it has been a medium for students’ exposure to
traumatic events as it is instantly reported in the news media which provide
virtual closeness to what’s happening around the globe (DeRoma et al., 2003;
Lindsey, Fugere, & Chan, 2007). Furthermore, Kim (2016) stated that besides
from natural disasters and terrorism, some examples of traumatic events that
also significantly affected a person’s distress are death of a family member, parental
abandonment, domestic abuse, rape, and serious illness. These circumstances
were no doubt been experienced by many of the students across the globe.

              Lambert, J. et al., (2014) stated
that colleges are more prone to increased stress and trauma that may lead to
distress and impairments due to the stressors happening inside or outside of
their classrooms. Callahan (2017) added that college might be an exciting and
overwhelming experience to begin new opportunities but this also may lead to an
unhealthy environment which might be a source of stress and trauma. According
to Iijima (1998), among the students general population, law students are the
one who have been experiencing a great amount of dysfunctional distress. They
were more dysfunctional in all categories of psychiatric distress than that of
the general public and medical students. Shanfield & Benjamin (1985) proved
the claim as they conduct a study comparing medical and law students’
psychological distress. They found out that law students were more uncertain to
their career and they lack commitment with the legal education, which may be a
factor of their distress. Law students’ distress become constant and been
sustained as they progress through their legal education. However Iijima (1998)
study opposed, she stated that law students became dysfunctional few months
after they started law school and experiences increased dysfunction as they
progress through their legal education. Furthermore, law students may become
victims of emotional dysfunction upon the start of law schooling and face
continued risks throughout the study and practice. As a result, students may
began having memory problems, being unable to concentrate, diminished
interests, etc. (Sharkin, 2006). According to Bloom (1999) when a person is
under stress their capacity to think is limited and because of it they make
decisions quickly without even thinking what would be the outcome of their
actions. He/she tends to respond with action because they are physiologically
geared and have no time for immediate and complicated mental processing.
Moreover, Lee & Cummins (2004) claim that all people have this capability
of making decisions that depends on the person’s thought of how he/she can
solve their problems. Everything will fall under our decisions. However, a
“dynamic thinking system” can cause too much decision making which might worsen
the result. Perhaps, we can base decision-making from the things that we have
learned in our life for these shortcomings. Also, students’ performance
problems affect their emotional well-being, developing anxiety and depression,
and vice versa, just as how their psychological state influence their
performance. For example, hope, optimism, and motivation may be stronger
predictors of their good academic performance (Iijima, 1998). In addition to
the previous, as law students experience anxiety, they become nervous towards
an event and they tend to overthink (Tull, 2017). Furthermore, they
also tend to treat other circumstances as a threat even though it has nothing to
do with them because of anxiety and fear (Neil, n.d). However, when they experience fear and anxiety it does not always
occur in situation when they are in immediate danger because all of their
attention is focused on impermanent survival in the present time (Bloom, 1999).
Therefore, fight or flight response emerges with their choice of facing the
situation (Calmclinic, n.d). However, Bal (n.d.) and Bloom (1999) found that
trauma does not only affect students’ mental and emotional well-being but also
physically. Its victims experience physical illnesses that are unrelated to any
injury they experience. Moreover, according to Cheshire (n.d.), we become
shocked, or always ready to fight or escape, or even shutting ourselves off
from our surrounding if our systems was engulfed by different traumatic events.
Simultaneously it brings pain conditions and restricting the healthy
functioning of all our system because our physical body tends to tighten or
contract. Furthermore, Scaer (n.d.) said that “… stress and trauma can
directly affect the human brain and its operation. If brain operates in an
abnormal way it might damage the body …”.The symptoms of trauma may occur if
the traumatic events are kept in the brain that regulate in the body (Scaer,
2007).

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            Interrelationships, both external
and internal, help one’s self by providing support and encouraging growth.
According to Iijima (1998), law school allows students to sever from these
connections as it focuses more on a narrow definition of success-getting high
grades and securing prestigious employment. In that case, law students lose
their interconnections and intraconnections which may affect their well-being and
greatly increase the risks of trauma and stress they may face in the future, thereby,
when a student struggling in law school faces the possibility of failure,
his/her relationships with people that support him/her during difficult times
may become unavailable which may result to more distress. Their bond with their
family parted as well as their reinforcements. Aside from stressors within the
school facilities, they may also become more vulnerable about what’s happening
outside their campuses may be in fraternities/organization, relationships, and
accidents. They may become victims of it, and with the thought of becoming a
victim, it may contribute to their trauma. Once a person became a victim, they
can either turn away from being a victim or turn into a victimizer as well
(Bloom, 1999). A person doesn’t like the feeling of being defeated, being a
victim makes them feel helpless and powerless and losing power is a pernicious
human experience.  According to Ruback &
Schaffer (2002) old victimization could be the best foretell of a coming victimization.
Past victimizations like tortures can turn a person into a victimizer.
Moreover, to escape the shell of being helpless, the victim will eventually
find a way wherein he/she can showcase his power and without realizing it,
he/she can also became the perpetrator. In that way, a person can feel
satisfied and avoid the feeling of helplessness (Bloom, 1999). Eventually, the victims will finally see the damage that has been
done when the abuser is gone. They will accept that they have been abused and
will decide to escape the bond. However, even after the victim left an abusive
and cruel event, the cycle of trauma bond does not really end after that. The
victim will continue to long for affection and eventually will lead to entering
another abusive and cruel relationship with a certain event or person
(Henderson, Bartholomew, & Dutton, 1997).

         Due to these many reasons, students
develop signs and symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD), Acute
Stress Disorder (ACD), depression, and other forms of mental distress (Hawdon
& Ryan, 2012) and physical symptoms. Common scenarios of students
struggling with ASD/PTSD are suicide threat, memory loss, comments triggering
flashbacks, and survivor’s guilt (Lambert, J. et al., 2014).